Seventeen High Frequency (HF) radars were damaged within the Mid Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System when Hurricane Sandy passed through the region in October 2012. This paper details the damage and the repair of the HF radar network.
High frequency radar is used today for mapping the surface currents of the coastal ocean with high temporal and spatial resolution. The radio signal (3-30 MHz) propagates over the electrically conductive ocean surface and can travel over the horizon well beyond line of sight microwave radars. The three main frequencies that are operated in the Mid Atlantic are 5, 13 and 25 MHz. The resolution of the system increases with frequency ranging between 6 km for the 5 MHz systems and 1 km for the 25 MHz systems. Surface current data throughout the region is produced every hour.
The Mid Atlantic High Frequency Radar Network is coordinated through a central office at Rutgers University with sub-regional technology centers at the University of Connecticut, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth and Old Dominion University. The hardware workforce consists of a part time regional coordinator with one full time radar operator stationed at each of the three sub-regions all within a day’s drive of any shore station in the sub-region. Technical expertise and hardware resources are shared during regular conference calls. Quality assurance measures are enacted during weekly remote site inspections. Radial data is collected and quality controlled before further processing.
The benefits of this work will increase the coverage and data quality of the surface current measurements in the region. The US Coast Guard uses the surface currents operationally for search and rescue and NOAA Office of Response and Restoration for oil spill response. Other users of the data include New Jersey and Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection offices, county health offices and Mid Atlantic Fishery Management Council.
Hugh Roarty is an award winning speaker and recipient of the John P. Breslin Award for outstanding research in ocean engineering. He is currently a Research Project Manager with the Center for Ocean Observing Leadership at Rutgers University. His research interests focus on improving the remote sensing and in situ instrumentation used to measure the physical and biological aspects of the ocean. This instrumentation includes High Frequency (HF) radar systems, autonomous under water vehicles (AUVs), and acoustic velocity meters. He has used HF radar systems for the measurement of ocean surface currents and wave parameters. He has applied these measurements for use in Coast Guard search and rescue exercises, the study of river discharge plumes and prediction of coastal inundation during storm events. He also developed the dual use capability of the HF radar for environmental monitoring and target detection. This work was performed within the National Center for Secure and Resilient Maritime Commerce (CSR). His graduate research focused on coastal processes and bottom boundary layer dynamics. Dr. Roarty holds a BS in Civil Engineering from Rutgers University and a PhD in Ocean Engineering from Stevens Institute of Technology.
East Carolina University/Coastal Resources Management PhD Student
Policy dilemmas surrounding sea level rise and coastal hazards are manifest in dynamic environments such as coastal barrier islands where development has occurred. The Outer Banks, a narrow string of barrier islands in eastern North Carolina, demonstrates a microcosm of broader national challenges where Federal, State, and local policies intertwine to form a complex, evolving landscape. The Cape Hatteras National Seashore, located along the Outer Banks, was established in 1937 to preserve cultural and natural resources of national significance, yet these islands have shoreline rates of change that are predominately erosional, frequently experience storm surge inundation driven by tropical and extra-tropical storm events, and are highly vulnerable to sea level rise. The National Park Service (NPS) recognizes the vulnerability of historic structures located within the park, and sought the utility of a coastal hazard vulnerability assessment to assist park managers with long-term planning. A cooperative agreement with researchers at East Carolina University (ECU) (Allen, Montz, & Walsh CESU 2013-16) was formed to conduct the assessment, which primarily used a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate the susceptibility of 27 historical structures to coastal erosion, storm surge, and sea level rise. Although the National Park Service maintains jurisdiction along the entire oceanfront section of the beach within the park, there are seven unincorporated communities (Rodanthe, Waves, Salvo, Avon, Buxton, Frisco, and Hatteras) located along Cape Hatteras National Seashore in Dare County, NC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of the building stock of each community at the building footprint level so that individual property owners, Dare County officials, and NC Division of Coastal Management staff have access to information generated at the same scale as their potential decision as it pertains to employing mitigation strategies. The methodology employed to evaluate the vulnerability of the National Park Service structures was applied to all of the residential and commercial property located within those seven unincorporated communities. In addition to reviewing the quantitative methodology and results of the analysis, the qualitative aspects of the assessment will be reviewed as well, which were completed as part of the 2016 NC Sea Grant Coastal Policy Fellowship.
Michael Flynn is a Coastal Resources Management PhD Student at East Carolina University and recipient of the 2016 North Carolina Sea Grant Coastal Policy Fellowship. He is currently working on his dissertation, which focuses on conducting a multi-hazard vulnerability assessment along Cape Hatteras National Seashore under the supervision of Dr. Tom Allen. He is currently employed as a Coastal Scientist at Michael Baker International and was previously employed at the Stockton University Coastal Research Center in New Jersey.
BSC Group, Inc.
Climate change research continues to show that storms are intensifying, sea levels are rising, and areas are becoming more susceptible to flooding. In fact, The Boston Harbor Association Preparing for the Rising Tide Report (February 2013) states that cost-effective preparedness plans need to be implemented to account for future increases in flooding. As a result, MECO d/b/a National Grid (utility company in New England) is taking a proactive stance to implement a suite of flood protection measures at several substations in Massachusetts and Rhode Island to mitigate potential risks to the general public and allow the continuous, reliable delivery of electric service in light of future increases in flooding and intense storm events.
In order to identify the high risk substations in MA and RI, BSC prepared the following map sets:
As a result, approximately 26 substations have been chosen for upgrades that address the potential for future climate change impacts.
In addition, this simple and preliminary GIS effort assisted National Grid in their planning and design of flood protection measures. To expedite protection of their electric infrastructure and to ensure National Grid continues to provide reliable delivery of electric service to the region in the event of a flood, the above mentioned GIS mapping was used during the permitting process for these temporary flood protection measures.
Next, BSC is working to provide site specific coastal inundation mapping analysis, including sea level rise and storm surge, for the coastal substations as National Grid begins to determine and design permanent flood protection measures. These maps will take into account site specific criteria including topography, mean high water line, high water marks, and tides. Different scenarios, such as variations in sea level rise (i.e., 1 meter vs 2 meter) and hurricane categories, will be evaluated to create the resilient design solutions.
Mr. Andrews is a GIS analyst and with BSC. His expertise includes Digital Mapping/Computer Cartography for site assessment, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) collection, Georeferencing and digitization of large projects, as well as creation, maintenance, digitizing, formatting and population of Shapefiles and Geodatabases. He is also responsible for modeling and mapping Hurricane Surge Inundation Zones and sea level rise for flood protection planning. While his background is in GIS, he routinely assists the ecological team with construction compliance inspections, GPS survey, and permitting.
Rutgers the State University of New Jersey
Co-authors: Hugh Roarty, Josh Kohut, and Scott Glenn
Currently there are fourteen High Frequency (HF) radar stations deployed along the coast of New Jersey making hourly measurement of surface currents and wave conditions. These currents are then sent to the United States Coast Guard and used for a multitude of things, including storm tracking and search and rescue missions. After Hurricane Sandy there has been a push for increasing the resiliency and accuracy of the radar measurements. One way to meet this goal is to install more HF radar sites along the coast. However this is expensive in terms of installation cost as well as the ongoing operations and maintenance cost. Another way to increase resiliency is to make the network operate bistatically. Bistatics involve the separation of the transmit and receive stations, as well as utilizing the time signal in the Global Positioning System (GPS) to coordinate the time of the transmission signals. This is a viable way of increasing accuracy and resiliency with out increasing the number of antennae, only adding a software feature to the radar stations that are currently operating. This results in a switch from a radial geometry (Figure 1) and measurement to an elliptical geometry (Figure 2) and measurement. This allows for higher percentage of overlapping coverage, which could potentially increase accuracy and resiliency.
Last year through the use of simulation software, the Mid Atlantic HF Radar Network was analyzed using the Geometric Dilution of Statistical Accuracy (GDOSA) metric to see how bistatic radar measurements could improve the system. If the angle between current measurements from two radars is orthogonal, GDOSA assigns the vectors in this overlapping region to be of high accuracy. Contrarily, if the angle between measurements is close to parallel then it is considered a region of low accuracy. Different scenarios were tested, including a simulation of turning off certain stations to determine which ones were crucial to the network. Finally an optimal configuration was found and bistatics are now being implemented in the network.
Using the configuration found through the previous models, bistatics are now being implemented throughout the MARACOOS network. Currently three radar stations are operating bistatically and generating elliptical current maps. They are stations located in North Wildwood (WOOD), Strathmere (RATH) and Brigantine (BRMR) New Jersey. The results have shown promise that the elliptical current measurements can become part of the operational data stream for the radar network. The bistatic systems are renamed using the first two letters of the four-letter station codes. For example the Strathmere-Brigantine bistatic system is called RABR. Initial findings suggest that the RABR is getting better coverage than the RAWO. Using bistatics in RABR has widened the coverage area (Figure 2). However the increase in width has not come with an increase of measurements close to shore. More sites are in the process of being switched to a bistatic operation. Accuracy and coverage will be closely monitored during this time. The amount of time dedicated to quality controlling the elliptical files will also be closely monitored.
My name is Chloe Baskin and I am a current undergraduate at Rutgers University. I grew up in the beach town Manasquan and my love of the ocean started there. Currently, I am a physical oceanography major at Rutgers University. My interest lies in the biophysical interactions of the ocean. For the past three years I have worked with the Rutgers University Costal Ocean Observing Lab. During the summers I have also worked with New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium and Monmouth University. After my undergraduate career I plan on perusing a graduate degree in oceanography.
W.J. Castle, P.E. & Associates, P.C. – President
In 2015 W.J. Castle, P.E. & Associates, P.C. was awarded the engineering contract for the structural rehabilitation of Pier 68S. Built in the 1930’s, Pier 68S is a timber low deck finger pier located along the Delaware River in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Abandoned decades ago, the pier is part of the Delaware River Waterfront Development Plan to develop the waterfront. In its original as-built condition, the pier extended into the river approximately 500 feet. However, the end portion of the pier had previously collapsed, exposing the low deck fill. The proposed plan for the pier was to develop this abandoned pier into a park area for the residents.
Due to budgeting restrictions, the original plan for rehabilitating the structure was not feasible. W.J. Castle provided Value Engineering for the re-design of the structural repairs. The new design was within the limited budget while still providing the structural integrity required to sustain the proposed structure. Ease of construction and streamlining the entire renovation were key in the new design. Engineering investigation and analysis was completed to determine the materials, and methods for installation of all the repairs. Repairs included; timber pile and waler shims and hardware, tie-rod installation, concrete seawall spall repairs, and the construction of a new reinforced concrete end wall. The end portion of the original pier had partially collapsed, and approximately 94 feet was removed for the construction of the new end wall.
The structural repair design was completed in March 2015 for a total (budgeted and actual) cost of $207,000. The structural repairs were completed in June 2015 and the park construction was completed in September 2015. Total construction cost for the pier was $1.8 million. The park opened to the public in October 2015.
William Castle, P.E., S.E. a licensed Professional Engineer in eight states, is the owner of W.J. Castle, P.E. & Associates, P.C., a veteran owned, small business engineering firm located in NJ. Specializing in the field of structural marine engineering, Mr. Castle’s experience includes design, underwater inspection, and even construction of marine structures such as bridges, piers, docks, bulkheads, etc. Mr. Castle is an active member of several professional organizations including: ADCI, NSPE, ASCE, ACI, and TRB. In his career of over 46 years, Mr. Castle has received numerous honors and awards for both personal and professional achievement.
Three examples of geotextile-wrapped core boxes used in jetty construction will be discussed. Two of the jetties are along the Atlantic Ocean coast on New Jersey and the third is along the Delaware Bay. Benefits of this method of construction include sand tightening and increased durability.
Bidwell’s Creek Jetty was constructed in 1980. The seaward end of the jetty had deteriorated and subsided, due in part to poor foundation conditions. 705 feet of the jetty was reconstructed in 1998 as part of a larger project which included dune construction at Reeds Beach, NJ which is just south of the jetty. The Bidwell Creek Jetty used geotextiles below and within the matt stone foundation to bridge over the existing sand veneer which covers the thick Bay muds below. Geotextile was also used to wrap the jetty’s core stone to create a core box in the center of the structure. The Bidwell Creek Jetty extension has performed well over the last 17 years with no apparent subsidence or loss of core stone. The jetty weathered Superstorm Sandy with no apparent damage.
The jetty at 8th Street in Avalon was originally constructed to stabilize Townsends Inlet in 1966. Due to its short length it served more as a terminal groin than a jetty, and it was extended in 1986. It was extended again in 2002 from 800 to 1,250 feet. The additional 450 feet was added in an effort to reduce beach losses that were continuing at the north end of Avalon. Prior to being extended, the jetty was nearly destroyed during the storms of October 1991 and January 1992. It was reconstructed in 1992 utilizing a high strength woven polypropylene geotextile to wrap the core stone. The reconstructed section, plus the extension, which both employed the geotextile-wrapped core box concept, have remained intact for the past 24 years. The 1986 portion of the jetty suffered some damage during the winter storms of 2015-2016, however the core box installed in 1992 remained intact.
The south jetty at Absecon Inlet is in Atlantic City. This jetty, sometimes called the Oriental Avenue Jetty, was constructed in 1946. It was extended in 1961. In the original design, large armor stone was installed directly on small core stone without an intermediate size stone. The top of the jetty was grouted, but there were still gaps between the large armor stones in the side of the structure. Over the years, some core stone had been lost, resulting in small voids. Waves during Hurricane Sandy enlarged the voids and displaced a large quantity of core stone. Additionally, stone on the lee side of the head and trunk were dislodged. A repair design was developed which utilizes a similar geotextile-wrapped core box and repair approach as the 8th Street Jetty in Avalon and the Bidwell Creek Jetty. Nearly the entire 1,175 linear feet of the jetty will be refurbished. The design includes a secondary armor stone under the primary armor stone following generally accepted coastal design principles.
Of the three jetties described, the seaward end of the Absecon Inlet Jetty is subject to the largest waves due to deeper water in the inlet. The core-box concept has provided durability to the Bidwell Creek Jetty and the 8th Street Jetty. It is anticipated that this will provide a more durable repair at Absecon Inlet.
A Diplomate of Coastal Engineering, Gaffney is a Deputy Coastal Practice Leader for Mott MacDonald. Mr. Gaffney has 30 years’ coastal engineering experience having worked for consulting firms as well as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. He has published numerous papers on aspects of dredging, coastal restoration and structure design. Doug has a master’s degree from the University of Delaware and a bachelor’s degree from the United States Merchant Marine Academy. Doug is the president of the Northeast Shore & Beach Preservation Association.
Coastal structures have a major role in the protection of shorelines, property, critical infrastructure and cultural and recreational resources, as well as providing access to the water. Currently, for most coastal structures such as piers, breakwaters, revetments and seawalls, there is limited regulatory guidance in the United States relative to the appropriate level of flood risk (i.e., storm surge and waves) that should be considered during design. As such, these structures are often designed without a thorough understanding of risk. Not quantitatively considering risk can result in an inefficient design and, as a result, may or may not perform satisfactorily and/or require unanticipated maintenance and repair. This situation will be further exacerbated by the effects of climate change, including sea level rise and increase in storm intensity and/or frequency.
Risk-Informed Decision Making (RIDM) has been adopted by several federal agencies, including the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This presentation demonstrates the use and benefits of a simplified version of RIDM for design of typical coastal structures with a focus on resiliency. Applied to the design of coastal structures, the hazards include the relevant components of the coastal flood event, including storm tide elevation, wave height and period, and wind intensity and the duration and change over time (i.e., time series) of each of these.
Using RIDM, the flood hazards are characterized probabilistically, typically in terms of both the annual exceedance probability (AEP) and the structure life-cycle exceedance probability (LEP). Using RIDM, the flood hazards are characterized over a range of probabilities. To design for climate change, the cumulative frequency curves are also developed for different time horizons within the proposed structure life and for different sea level rise scenarios. The effects (or consequences) are determined for the flood conditions associated with the full range of the flood cumulative frequency curve. These effects include the environmental loads on the structure as well as the costs associated with direct and consequential damages resulting from floods exceeding a specific flood risk level. In benefit-cost analyses performed using RIDM, preventing these costs from occurring is considered a benefit.
RIDM is used as both a design tool and a decision-making tool. As a design tool, it establishes the environmental load conditions and corresponding structure performance for several different levels of risk, for the structure as a whole and for the individual structure components. This provides the basis for the designer to identify system weaknesses during different flood risks and incorporate elements into the design to create structure resiliency. It also allows the facility user to incorporate varying levels of preparedness actions to limit the exposure, risk of damage, and operation recovery into the design and decision making process. RIDM is also a powerful decision-making tool to help owners both understand their risk and determine the optimal level of investment in the structure, since it supports the development of comprehensive benefit-cost analyses. The fundamental (and critical) difference of RIDM relative to traditional benefit-cost analysis is that the benefits (i.e., the prevented consequences) are defined probabilistically using Monte Carlo analyses. The benefits and costs are typically defined on both an annual and life-cycle basis. This presentation describes the steps involved in incorporating RIDM into the design of coastal structures and presents examples of its application on typical coastal structures.
Daniel C. Stapleton is a Principal and Senior Vice-President of GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (GZA) and a leader of GZA’s Water Services group. Dan is currently directing GZA project teams in assessing the vulnerability of critical infrastructure, including power generation and transmission facilities located throughout the United States, to flood hazards.
Giken America Corp./Sr. Manager – Engineering
The rising sea level confronts many low-lying metropolitan areas of the world including coastal zones of Florida and California. Low pressure associated with hurricanes and storms further heighten the water level as they approach. This paper is to review the ways the densely populated southern Florida and California coastal communities, such as Miami Beach, Florida and Long Beach, California are preparing for the rising sea level including repairing and upgrading existing beaches and seawalls.
Miami Beach has been suffering from so-called sunny-day flooding. The city is currently upgrading their storm drain systems so it can better handle storm water even with the higher sea level. The local government is installing backflow preventers at outfalls, adding new pump stations, creating storm storage facilities, and raising some of the city streets and the seawalls. Town of Lantana in southeastern Florida often suffers from localized floods and beach erosions that threaten the structures on or near the beach. The township has Special Flood Hazard Areas designated for controlling the building elevations to minimize the flood damage. An emergency seawall has been constructed to stop further erosion of the beach after a severe winter storm without disturbing the operations of a nearby luxury hotel and a restaurant.
After 80 years of the same seawall structures lining the canals of Naples Island in Long Beach, California, the city started repairing its crumbling seawalls to protect the area’s beautiful multi-million dollar homes. The city and local residents realized that the old walls would only become worse as the sea level continues to rise. Although the seawalls were in need of major repair, the upgrade would not be so simple. Due to the tight clearances of the seawalls between the existing homes and canals, construction would be extremely difficult or practically impossible with heavy and large conventional construction equipment. Steel sheet piles were pressed into the canal’s bottom with the hydraulic press-in piling method, which resulted in the reduction of the duration of the project while using less space. The compact and non-vibratory equipment also significantly reduced the construction-related noise and minimized the risk of disturbances as well as settlement on residential properties which in turn greatly reduced complaints by the local residents.
Coastal areas are feeling the impact of the accelerating sea level rise worldwide. The first zone of defense against the flooding seawater is the levees and seawalls, many of which are either obsolete or deteriorating in densely populated areas. Press-in pile driving provides an environmentally-friendly repair and upgrade option for such situations.
The Texas General Land Office (GLO) has embarked upon an ambitious coastal planning effort: to develop a plan to restore, enhance and protect more than 367 miles of coast and some 3,300 miles of bays and estuaries. This planning effort has been the focus of intensive activity in 2016, yielding a blueprint for the future of precious and irreplaceable coastal resources and uses. The focal point of this collaborative planning effort with GLO, AECOM, Harte Research Institute and Crouch Communications will provide a framework for community, socio-economic, ecologic and infrastructure protection from coastal hazards, including short-term direct impact (e.g., flooding and storm surge) and long-term gradual impacts (e.g., erosion and habitat loss).
A unique feature of this planning effort has been the incorporation of best practices and lessons learned from an array of large scale master plans within and beyond the Gulf Coast region. Among many others, the GLO and its plan development team have studied master plans associated with some of the nation’s largest coastal reaches and river basins (e.g., Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay, Everglades, Puget Sound) as well as ambitious, single-state initiatives (e.g., Louisiana’s Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast). As a result, the GLO has initiated a planning process that benefits from the experiences of those who have embraced the challenges of complex, large scale, multi-use regions with diverse stakeholders.
This session will introduce the Texas Coastal Resiliency Plan process and describe how best practices and lessons learned from other experiences have informed and influenced this process. Among others, these include strategies for establishing a planning framework; securing interagency collaboration; identifying the coastal issues of concern and prospective projects; formulating and applying evaluation criteria for projects; designing and applying models to enhance scientific and economic rigor into the planning process; and building support for plan implementation among vested stakeholders.
These strategies are being incorporated into a planning process that began in early 2016 and will culminate in the release of a Phase 1 plan in January 2017. Championed by the GLO with substantial input from public, private, non-governmental sectors, the plan will document coastal features, major stressors and their impacts, and strategies to restore and protect coastal communities and assets with an emphasis on providing a resilient future for the Texas coast. These activities are complemented by gap and alternatives analyses, database development and application, programmatic modeling, project evaluation, stakeholder engagement, and outside expert analyses provided by a coastal Technical Advisory Committee. The outcome will be a suite of prioritized issues of concern and proposed solutions — by region and subregion — that individually and collectively support the vision for a resilient coast. Phase 1 outcomes will provide the basis for future refinements, recognizing that the Texas Coastal Resiliency Plan is a living document.
Mr. Levitz has spent his career working along the coast, with a focus in Texas. He has worked with the Texas General Land Office (GLO) and their coastal team to design and build multiple restoration projects prior to serving as the coastal engineering project manager for the GLO’s Texas Coastal Resiliency Plan efforts. Beyond working with the GLO, Mr. Levitz’s experience includes working on Federal projects such as the USACE’s flood protection system repairs after Hurricane Ike and FEMA’s coastal flood studies along the entire Texas coastline; in addition to other Federal, state, local and private coastal engineering projects.
Co-author is Elizabeth Vargas from the Texas General Land Office.
Michael Baker International
Over the past six years, FEMA has made a significant investment in updating the Nation’s flood hazard maps in coastal areas as part of its Risk Mapping, Assessment, and Planning (Risk MAP) program. In fact, FEMA has funded nearly all the engineering work necessary to update flood hazards along the populated coastline of the United States. During FY16, approximately a quarter of these studies are scheduled to be issued as Preliminary or Effective Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). Throughout the multi-year coastal study process, FEMA works with states, regional entities, and communities to identify, assess, and map their flood hazards. The goal of Risk MAP is to not only map flood hazards, but also to increase awareness of flood risk and encourage communities, property owners, and others to take action to mitigate their risk.
FEMA’s new Flood Risk Products provide an additional set of tools to augment the regulatory FIRM and Flood Insurance Study report that are produced during a coastal flood risk study. They better convey 1-percent-annual chance flood depths, flood risks from more severe storms, wave hazard severity areas, and areas of erosion risk. States, regional entities, communities, and businesses can use this suite of products for climate adaptation planning, future development planning, risk assessment of critical infrastructure or building and housing stock, and risk communication. This session will provide examples of how FEMA’s new products can be used to better identify, communicate, and mitigate flood risk.
However, experience has shown that delivering datasets is not enough—resources and training must also be provided to communicate the utility of the data and the value it can add to ongoing flood risk planning and communication efforts. To this end, FEMA and its community engagement and risk communications (CERC) contractor, Resilience Action Partners, are providing end user support to accompany the flood risk products. This presentation will also highlight the lessons learned about the types of end user support that have been most effective in making the flood risk datasets more accessible so that they can be used to help inform good decision making with the goal of making coastal communities safer and stronger.
As a member of Michael Baker International’s Coastal Science and Engineering Practice, Ms. Conner applies her technical and policy background to develop materials for the effective communication of flood hazard and risk information to empower decision makers to take action and address the real and challenging threat of coastal flooding. She is a nationally recognized expert in National Flood Insurance Program policies and their application, with a focus on coastal flood analyses and mapping. She has led projects throughout the U.S. that seek to reduce risk to people, property, businesses, infrastructure, and the environment in the presence of coastal hazards.
Environmental Defense Fund
Worldwide, densely populated and economically productive low-lying coastal areas are experiencing the effects of accelerated sea level rise, erosion and flooding caused by more severe storms. Given all of the scenarios for continued sea level rise, and given that the merits of major public works are typically evaluated based on 50-year time frames, we need to enhance our collective capacity to coordinate, plan and implement meaningful and cost-effective coastal storm resiliency. To start we need to build greater understanding and confidence in strategies that have worked elsewhere – and those that have not. EDF, a nongovernmental organization with a long history of working to improve coastal Louisiana’s storm resiliency, is applying lessons learned in Louisiana to help other coastal communities more effectively build their resilience. To inform its work, EDF conducted two expert surveys. One survey addressed the Northeast U.S. coastal and marine ecosystems and focused on how climate change impacts affect restoration and protection priorities for coastal and marine ecosystems and human communities. This survey of 80 regional experts prioritized ecosystem stressors under current and future conditions (i.e., with climate change) as a method to understand how current management priorities may shift in the future with climate change stressors. The other survey focused on the second largest population center in the United States at greatest risk of flooding from sea level rise – Hampton Roads, Virginia – and the needs of coastal resiliency planners, designers, engineers and decision-makers. Designed in consultation with Old Dominion University, the Virginia Institute for Marine Science, the City of Norfolk and others, the survey covered governance, stakeholder engagement, engineering and financing issues and is intended to inform the work of the Commonwealth Center for Recurrent Flooding Resiliency, Hampton Roads Sea Level Rise Preparedness and Resilience Intergovernmental Planning Pilot Project, and Coastal Resilience Laboratory and Accelerator Center. Key issues identified in the surveys and strategies to support more dynamic and effective approaches to coastal resilience, which include investment in protecting, enhancing, and restoring natural infrastructure rise will be presented.
Shannon Cunniff leads EDF’s natural coastal infrastructure program. In this capacity, she has develop and begun implementing strategies to help coastal communities adapt to climate change’s impacts. She has focused on building understanding and acceptance of natural infrastructure’s flood risk reduction services as part of broader coastal resiliency efforts. She is also working on expanding innovative financing for restoration of these natural defenses. Shannon has worked on water resources and flooding policy and practice issues for over 30 years – including service with the Army Corps of Engineers, EPA, and Department of the Interior.
Co-authors are: Natalie Peyronnin, EDF and Sarah Lindley Smith, EDF
National Disaster Preparedness Training Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa / Coastal Planning and Engineering Specialist
Waikiki is especially vulnerable to natural disasters due to its exposure to multiple coastal hazards, the density of development, and its economic importance to the State of Hawaii. Planning for disaster recovery prior to an event is important not only to facilitate a return to normalcy, but also to identify opportunities to improve on existing vulnerabilities and reduce the risk to hazards. This presentation reports on a project to develop a pre-disaster recovery plan for the Waikiki Business Improvement District Association that addresses the specific challenges of this important district. The plan is based on a detailed analysis of the social, economic, and physical vulnerability of Waikiki to extreme events and incorporates the recommended elements of recovery plans as suggested by federal, state and local guides and examples. This presentation focuses on the vulnerability assessment portion of the project and its implications for determining appropriate long-term recovery strategies for Waikiki.
The recovery process presents an opportunity to incorporate strategies that address the unique vulnerabilities of a coastal tourist destination with both social and economic significance, such as Waikiki. A detailed vulnerability assessment can serve as a useful tool in informing and prioritizing planning decisions addressing disaster recovery. As part of the Waikiki Recovery Planning project, a vulnerability assessment was conducted to provide the fact base and set the direction for the planning process. Understanding the vulnerability of Waikiki to coastal hazards helps to inform the development of a pre-disaster recovery plan by highlighting the challenges that should be addressed during recovery.
In this study, vulnerability was assessed based on the exposure of social, physical and economic factors to tsunami inundation, hurricane storm surge, and riverine flooding using a Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Based on a number of variables, a Vulnerability Index score for each factor was determined at the tax parcel scale and mapped to highlight the spatial variability of vulnerability across Waikiki. Because Waikiki is composed of a diverse array of assets and stakeholders, vulnerability varies widely across the district. Taking this variability into account, recommended recovery strategies are presented based on potential impacts, stakeholder input, and the trade-offs characterizing each strategy. Aligning recovery planning efforts and strategies with vulnerability will help to ensure a more successful recovery should Waikiki be impacted by disaster.
Roberto Porro serves as the Coastal Planning and Engineering Specialist at the National Disaster Preparedness Training Center, developing coastal hazard and resilience training courses for emergency management professionals and planners. He has previously served as a naval officer and civil engineer for the U.S. Navy. Mr. Porro holds a B.S. in Ocean Engineering from the Florida Institute of Technology and a M.A. in Urban and Regional Planning from the University of Hawaii, focusing on coastal planning. He holds a professional civil engineering license and is a member of the Board of Directors of the Hawaii Shore and Beach Preservation Association.
Co-authors: Dr. Karl Kim, National Disaster Preparedness Training Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa; Jiwnath Ghimire, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Hawaii at Manoa; and Stephanie Nagai, National Disaster Preparedness Training Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa.
CB&I / Project Scientist
The geographic area that Joint Airborne LiDAR Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) covers with their Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) program allows for researchers to quantify coastal metrics on national, regional and local scales. As these studies have progressed, it has become apparent that software needs to be developed to quantify coastal change from LiDAR at multiple scales. The purpose of this research is to provide coastal managers with quantities and locations of change that occurred on eastern US coastlines, and if the researcher would like additional information, provide the tools necessary for additional metrics to be quantified and additional questions to be answered.
JALBTCX LiDAR data were delivered as 1,332 filtered surfaces in standard US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) five kilometer blocks from the Maine coastline to the Florida/Alabama border. Multiple processing steps and custom conversion tools were written in Python and incorporated into the ArcGIS software environment via ESRI’s ArcToolbox. Developed tools included baseline and transect generation, shoreline extraction, shoreline and volume change calculations and a query tool to quantify changes between user-specified transects.
Coastal metrics for almost 3,300 km of coastline were quantified between two time periods in this study. Metrics included shoreline change, volume change, mean high water (MHW) volume change and above MHW volume change. The time period studied was generally between 2005 and 2010 which represented a relatively calm period due to the lack of a significant number of major storms. Average shoreline change was 0.9 feet per year (ft/yr), with the west coast of Florida measuring the highest at 7.7 ft/yr and northwest Florida measuring the lowest at −9.5 ft/yr. Beaches increased in volume by more than 260 million cubic yards (mcy) and had an average density increase of 4.6 cubic yards per linear foot per year (cy/ft/yr). The subaerial volume increased by more than 65 mcy with an average density of 1.7 cy/ft/yr. The west coast of Florida volume increased the most at over 113 mcy, and Massachusetts lost the most volume at more than 12 mcy.
The JALBTCX toolbox allows for multiple coastal metrics to be extracted and directly compared. Maine, Maryland and Florida east coast are excellent examples of areas with a negative shoreline change and positive subaerial volume. Volume change and above MHW volume change should be the utilized metrics when data sets with gaps at the shoreline elevation limited quantifications for shoreline and MHW volume change.
Quin’s research focuses on using conventional survey and remote sensing data to quantify change in coastal morphology and develop models from these results using geographic information systems (GIS) to aid in coastal mitigation. Quin specializes in working with multiple topographic and bathymetric data sets to create seamless digital elevation models (DEMs) that are often critical for accurate geomorphic change analysis and often serve as the basis for scientific conclusions. Co-authors: Lauren Dunkin, Jennifer Wozencraft, Zhifei Dong
Texas A&M University
Numerous small islands in the Upper Laguna Madre are used as rookeries by a diversity of colonial water bird species including skimmers, terns, egrets, and pelicans. Colonial water bird populations are key environmental indicators of an estuary system’s health. Additionally, communities along the Texas coast enjoy economic benefits from birding ecotourism, especially colonial water birds. However, recent studies show a dramatic decline in certain colonial water bird populations in the region. The majority of rookeries in the Upper Laguna Madre are spoil islands created from dredged material. Due to their low elevation and small extent, these islands are vulnerable to wave-driven erosion, storm impact, and relative sea level rise. This vulnerability is expected to amplify with a projected growth in sea level rise. Resource managers concerned with impacts of habitat loss on colonial water bird populations stress the need for detailed information about rookery island topography. Presently, only very sparse elevation data exists. Without baseline topographic data, resource managers are limited in their ability to effectively characterize nesting habitat. This project will address this problem by utilizing airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) measurements of island topography within the Upper Laguna Madre to characterize rookery vulnerability. The analysis will target the chain of islands near the JFK causeway and along the Intracoastal Waterway from Corpus Christi bay south to the land bridge below Baffin Bay (~100 sq. km, ~170 islands). Success of the project will be measured by the following deliverables: (1) accurate, high-resolution digital elevation models of island terrain; (2) GIS-layer to describe island morphometrics; (3) inundation maps of island vulnerability. The project outputs can be applied by resource managers to monitor island evolution, identify vulnerable habitat or alternative habitat, derive new understanding about nesting and landscape interaction, and assess coastal hazards impacts.
Texas A&M University
This study examines the relationship between modern barrier island morphology and offshore bathymetry to better understand the development history of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS), Texas, USA. The widely accepted hypothesis for the development of PAIS is that the dunes on the mainland were partially submerged during the Holocene transgression, resulting in distinct islands that eventually coalesced by sediment transported alongshore; however, this hypothesis does not follow the development history of other barrier islands throughout the Gulf of Mexico. This study uses electromagnetic inductance (EMI) surveys, bathymetric contours, and island morphometrics to better understand the development of PAIS. A 100km long EMI survey was conducted to aid in identifying infilled subsurface paleochannels that dissect the island. Bathymetric contours were extracted from National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) coastal relief models (CRM) up to 7km offshore by offsetting the shoreline east in 1km intervals. Island width and volume, beach width and volume, and dune height and volume were extracted from a 100 km LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM) using an automated approach. Apparent conductivity at all three frequencies (from the EMI survey), bathymetric contours, and island morphometrics were subsequently decomposed using a continuous wavelet transformation (CWT). Beach width, dune height, and dune width exhibit a very similar waveform that coincides spatially with an inflection point in the waveform for the offshore bathymetric contours. Portions of the island proximal to the infilled paleochannels tend to have a higher volume beach and taller/higher volume dunes. The high degree of similarity between the subsurface paleochannels, offshore bathymetry, and island morphometrics support a new theory of development for PAIS. We argue that PAIS is not simply a series of partially submerged relict dunes, as previously proposed (Weise and White, 1980); rather, framework geology is an important factor affecting modern island morphology. Results suggest that the northern, central, and southern portions of the island may have different geomorphic histories.
Phillipe is a PhD candidate in Geography working under Dr. Chris Houser at Texas A&M University. His research focuses on quantifying the relationship between framework geology and coastal geomorphology.
Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin
Coastal researchers from the Bureau of Economic Geology have conducted a four-year study of shoreline characteristics and movement in three major bay systems on the central Texas coast. Texas bays are rimmed by natural and modified shorelines that include high bluffs, fresh-, brackish-, and salt-water marshes, tidal flats, and sandy spits and beaches. Each of these major shoreline types is susceptible to change in morphology and position related to wave attack, storms, ship and boat traffic, subsidence, sea-level change, and sediment supply. Vulnerability to change differs depending on many factors, including elevation, shape, orientation, and distance from sediment sources.
Previous assessments of shoreline change in Texas bays have been based on historic charts, aerial photographs, and field studies of major bay systems. More recently, airborne lidar has been used to map and characterize the Texas gulf shoreline, yielding continuous coverage of the beach and dune systems and allowing more quantitative assessments of shoreline change and vulnerability. Airborne lidar surveys were flown for this project in the San Antonio Bay (2013), Copano/Aransas Bay (2014), and Matagorda Bay (2015) systems. Bay shoreline positions were extracted from high-resolution digital elevation models constructed from the airborne lidar data. Shoreline change rates and trends were determined by comparing shoreline positions imported from previous investigations of bay shoreline change with those extracted from the 2013, 2014, and 2015 lidar surveys. These rates of change will be correlated with shoreline types (tidal flats, marshes, bluffs, and beaches), shoreline orientation, and wave fetch to examine likely causes of change and future vulnerability.
In addition to providing a shoreline, the topographic lidar dataset will be useful for mapping and managing coastal wetlands that fall within the lidar swath, characterizing shoreline type, assessing shoreline vulnerability to sea-level change, and better understanding the geologic context of shoreline change. These data and analyses will update chart- and photography-based analyses of bay shoreline movement conducted by the BEG through the 1950s (Matagorda), 1980s (San Antonio), and 1990s (Copano/Aransas) and augments those studies with detailed lidar-derived information on shoreline morphology not evident from past photography-based analyses. The rate of shoreline movement and shoreline type characterization are critical parameters for coastal management.
Tiffany Caudle is a coastal scientist at the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin. She has been involved in projects that study shoreline change, coastal processes, and severe storm effects and beach recovery. Tiffany is responsible for the Texas High School Coastal Monitoring Program which includes student monitoring activities and field trips, data analysis, website improvements, and occasional workshops for teachers and students. She is also an instructor for the Jackson School of Geosciences GeoFORCE Texas outreach program. She has a B.S. in Geology from Juniata College and a M.S. in Geology from the University of South Florida.
Additional authors: Jeffrey G. Paine and John Andrews
Associate Professor, East Carolina University
Storms and sea-level rise continue to impact coastlines around the world. In North Carolina many communities are conducting or planning beach nourishment in an effort to minimize future storm impacts. These projects are costly and must be completed properly based on accurate geological and geophysical data to have the best chance for success. The proximity and size of a suitable sand source can impact project costs, and problems may still arise even with extensive data. Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 had dramatic impacts on coastal areas north of Cape Hatteras, and in response, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management is supporting research along the East Coast to plan for potential use of resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). East Carolina University scientists are working with the NC Division of Coastal Management, Geodynamics and others to obtain, analyze and catalog existing geological and geophysical data in the OCS (3-8 nm offshore). Information on datasets will be made available to the public via the NC Coastal Atlas and federal data engines. This presentation will review resource needs, discuss data collection and cataloging efforts and provide a brief summary of analyses, needs and future efforts.
Walsh is an Associate Professor in the Department of Geological Sciences and Institute for Coastal Science and Policy at East Carolina University. Also, he is Co-Program Head for Coastal Processes at the UNC Coastal Studies Institute.
Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, University of Georgia
Hurricane Sandy caused billions of dollars in damages to coastal communities along the east coast of the United States. Given the eventual likelihood of similar storms in the future, coastal communities have begun to develop strategies to increase their resilience to, and speed their recovery from, such an event. A detailed understanding of the distribution and character of nearshore and inner continental shelf sand resources is a critical component in developing these strategies. These sand resource data are critically needed in Georgia, as the sand resources on the continental shelf off of Georgia are the most poorly known of all the states along the East Coast. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the NOAA Sea Grant Program are funding efforts to collect, analyze and synthesize new, high resolution datasets to build an understanding of the beach-quality sand resources available on the Georgia shelf. Three developed barrier islands along the Georgia coast (Sea, St. Simons and Jekyll Islands) are without identified renourishment resources and are the focus of these studies. This presentation will describe the current status of these projects, present new and existing samples and datasets compiled for these studies, and outline goals for the future. Results to date show that coarse (mean = 0.8±0.2 phi) and medium sands (mean = 1.5±0.3 phi) are located seaward of 13 km offshore and in depths greater than 14 m. Fine (mean = 2.5±0.3 phi) and very fine sands (mean = 3.1±0.1 phi) are located closer to shore (within 13 km) and in depths less than 13 m. These findings validate the concept of a zone of modern sediment influence in the nearshore zone. The location of the boundary between the Recent and relict sediments does not appear to have changed, within the limits of our analyses, since previous studies in the 1970s first observed this pattern. However, the boundary’s location is now better constrained. Recent, high-resolution surveys in the OCS provide much needed context for further detailed studies, and will be analyzed in the near future. Eventually, sediment character, bathymetry, sediment thickness and sediment trend data will be integrated into a predictive geospatial framework in support of future nourishment efforts.
Dr. Clark Alexander is a Professor at the University of Georgia’s Skidaway Institute of Oceanography and in the UGA Department of Marine Sciences, and is the Director of Georgia Southern University’s Applied Coastal Research Laboratory. Alexander earned two Bachelor’s degrees from Humboldt State University and graduate degrees in marine geology from North Carolina State University. He has worked on the Georgia coast for the past 27 years. His general research focus is on understanding sedimentary processes in estuarine, coastal and continental margin environments. Alexander frequently works to develop management-relevant science to improve Georgia’s estuarine and coastal environments.
Virginia DMME Division of Geology and Mineral Resources
The Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy (DMME) is participating in a state-federal cooperative agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) to assess marine sand resources and economic heavy minerals on the outer continental shelf (OCS). This work supports the main goal of delineating resources for improved coastal resiliency in response to the Hurricane Sandy Federal Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013. The cooperative study has also advanced our understanding of the distribution and concentration of potentially valuable heavy minerals including ilmenite, rutile, leucoxene, monazite, and zircon that might provide economic benefits during marine sand dredging operations for coastline protection. These minerals have economic value as sources of titanium- and zirconium-oxides, rare earth elements and thorium. The Virginia offshore region is considered an especially prospective setting for deposits of economic minerals derived from fluvial sources draining known mineralized areas in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont geologic provinces; the same sediments have produced onshore paleo-beach heavy mineral deposits that have been mined for many years.
Results of the initial 24-month project period starting in June 2014 include three main accomplishments. First, a large catalog of legacy geological and geotechnical data contained in over 400 paper logs of vibracore, more than 800 seafloor grab sample descriptions with accompanying grain size analyses, and geophysical data were scanned and converted to digital format. The resulting geodatabase facilitated the standardization of sediment classifications, quality control checks, metadata creation, and digital comparison to seismic reflection profiles and side-scan sonar images. Second, the geodatabase and metadata provided the means for implementing spatial mapping and distribution from the DMME web map OCS data portal. Third, grain size determinations and heavy mineral separation and analysis were completed for 72 seafloor grab samples that were collected in 2013-14. The results of these analyses identified beach quality medium- to coarse-grain sand deposits for further investigation. Total heavy mineral concentrations up to 4.1% were closely associated with very fine-grain sands containing worm burrow tubes that may have been a factor in mineral deposition.
Over the next 24-month project period starting in mid-2016, the main objectives include detailed evaluations of the spatial extent, thickness, and grain size statistics in two main sand resource areas, and assessments of the potential economic value of co-existing heavy minerals. This work will utilize the digital datasets compiled during the initial project phase, together with new vibracore and grab sample data acquired during the BOEM-sponsored Atlantic Sand Assessment Project (ASAP), as well as sediment grab samples and geophysical data collected during the USGS-sponsored Delmarva Geologic Framework study completed in 2014-15. Grain size and mineralogical analysis will also be completed on selected core and sediment grab samples located in the project area that were earlier collected as part of the Virginia Wind Energy Area geotechnical investigations.
William Lassetter manages the economic geology program of the DMME Division of Geology and Mineral Resources, Virginia’s state geological survey. Four economic geoscientists are conducting investigations to assess CO2 storage in geologic reservoirs, offshore sand and heavy mineral resources, geochemical nature of co-produced waters from natural gas wells, and mineral and energy resource statistics and trends in the Commonwealth. William’s 30+ years professional career includes international and U.S. minerals exploration work, environmental consulting, and hydrogeologic investigations. William completed a B.S. degree (1980) in geology at Virginia Tech, and a M.S. degree (1996) in hydrogeology at the University of Nevada, Reno.
SC Dept Natural Resources
Following the widespread impacts of Hurricane Sandy along the Atlantic coastline in 2012, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) provided funding for a series of state-level projects to assist with identifying sand resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) that could be mobilized for future renourishment needs. South Carolina’s state cooperative project partnership has focused on developing a framework for locating OCS sand resources for the state, improving knowledge of the scope and characteristics of existing datasets, and identifying future needs and target areas for data collection efforts within the 3-8 nautical mile OCS. Our work partially built on prior multi-year data collection and analysis efforts on the part of state, local, and federal governments, most notably a multi-year effort by the South Carolina Task Force on Offshore Resources in the 1990’s. Project data were also acquired from universities and private consulting firms hired to supply community-specific data relating to renourishment projects. A total of 6523 km of geophysical trackline and 3443 geotechnical data records (grab, vibracore, or bottom characterization) were catalogued for this project. The 1,931 square km area of focus has 3% coverage of geotechnical data, 48% coverage of geophysical data, and 26% coverage of both survey types. These data were integrated along with information pertaining to the renourishment demands of individual beach communities to provide an assessment of future need for these resources. Associated metadata records provide survey-specific information that can be used to assess the potential value of historical data records to future sand-resource assessments. Additional work for this project will focus on processing and detailed analysis of a dataset collected by BOEM contractor CB&I in 2015 to better understand the distribution and volume of sand situated within shoals in the 3-8 nautical mile OCS offshore of South Carolina. Knowledge of the spatial scope and renourishment potential of these sand resources will improve coastal resilience to significant storm impacts in the future.
Ocean planning is a science-based and data-driven process that provides a tool for people and government to cooperatively solve problems in a way that works better for everyone. Rather than creating a new set of laws, ocean planning provides information and cross-sector engagement that can help identify and resolve potential conflicts early, helping decision makers in the private and public sectors to do their jobs better.
How does it work? Ocean planning collects the best available science and data to more accurately understand what’s happening in the ocean, and to identify areas of ecological, commercial and recreational importance. It brings together multiple government agencies and a broad range of community and business stakeholders on a voluntary basis to more effectively share information on current and planned uses of ocean resources. By creating a common place where the best information and the right people can come together, ocean planning allows decision makers to more rationally coordinate multiple management objectives, and ultimately, make smarter decisions for the economy, our communities, and the environment.
Several states including Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Oregon and Washington have already completed ocean plans for their state waters. In 2010, a Presidential Executive Order established a National Ocean Policy that, amongst other things, established an ocean planning process for federal waters. In 2012 & 2013, Regional Planning Bodies were established in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic to coordinate and implement regional ocean planning with state, federal, tribal, and Fishery Management Council representatives. The Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Regional Ocean Plans are anticipated to be submitted to the National Ocean Council in Fall 2016, the first in the nation. In 2015, the West Coast Regional Planning Body convened and is currently working on a related regional ocean planning process.
This panel will (1) present an overview of existing ocean plans, with a focus on plans for federal waters; (2) discuss how ocean plans can help improve decision-making and coordination amongst federal agencies, states, industry, and other stakeholders; and (3) explore how ocean planning can be used to better engage stakeholders in ocean management though data, best practices, and a providing a common venue for discussion.
Great Lakes Dredge & Dock/VP
When markets are declining or highly cyclical like the US dredging market, determining when and how to invest in new dredge equipment becomes the ultimate gamble. GLDD is nearing completion of a new build hopper dredge, called the Ellis Island, that will be the largest in the US at 15,000 cy and a new type of hopper dredge, an ATB, or Articulate Tug and Barge. This dredge will include many technological innovations that in addition to the vessels sheer size, will change the way projects are executed in the US. Understanding the Ellis Island capabilities will help our clients and regulators and other project stakeholders also innovate in the way they execute these projects. This presentation will provide an overview of the new dredge and its capability.
Bill Hanson, VP at Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Company, also serves on the Executive Committee of ASBPA.
Humiston & Moore Engineers
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) was enacted to protect endangered and threatened species and the ecosystems upon which they depend.
Many in organizations such as the American Shore and Beach Preservation Association are familiar with the ESA as it relates to obtaining permits for activities to control erosion. Indeed one of the important things the Act does is protect important parts of our ecosystem that are unique to coastal waters and the nearshore environment. Furthermore, it is well known that when an endangered species goes extinct, there are impacts to other parts of the ecosystem, sometimes unanticipated and dramatic. Mangroves are an example. They provide habitat where larval stages of valuable fish and immature of many species thrive. Some of those organisms are the bottom of the food chain while others, when mature, are important for fisheries. If mangrove forests and other intertidal wetlands are not preserved, important fisheries will collapse.
Beaches are nesting habitat for sea turtles, some threatened or endangered. Turtles rely on beaches for nesting, where they leave behind egg shells and usually a few unhatched eggs that add nutrients to the dunes and add to the richness of nutrients in the beach wrack line which gets dispersed to varying degrees on each high tide. Those nutrients feed crabs, mollusks, larval and immature fish species, plus many species of birds, of which some are themselves endangered. Leatherback turtles feed on jellyfish, the population of which would explode without turtles. Green turtles have been called lawn mowers for the way they feed on and nourish grass beds, keeping them healthy for a wide range of organisms, mostly at or near the bottom of the food chain. Hawks bill turtles eat sponges which otherwise could destroy coral reef which is important to many, many sessile and free swimming organisms.
The U.S Fish & Wildlife Service is the agency that carries out many of the domestic functions of the ESA. It also carries out the functions of the Management Authority and Scientific Authority for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, as well as other International Treaties adopted for the protection and preservation of endangered species world wide.
The ESA provides valuable functions, however, it science has advanced since the ESA was enacted, even since it was last edited in 2003. Coastal Engineers, Coastal Geologists, and Marine Biologists have advanced understanding of the littoral environment which when applied through the ESA can more effectively preserve sea turtle nesting habitat.
This presentation will look at old and new developments in Erosion Control technology, and how those developments may be incorporated in administration of the ESA. It will examine how better understanding of the ESA may aid Coastal Engineers and Coastal Managers for efficient management of eroding their coastlines.
Kenneth Humiston, P.E., has a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Delaware and an M.S. in Coastal Engineering from the University of Florida. He has previously worked for the Corp of Engineers, was Assistant V.P. of Southern Dredging Co., and co-founded Humiston & Moore Engineers in 1991. He is Past President of the firm, and currently serves as Senior Consultant. He is also a Director on the Board of Audubon of the Western Everglades.
This presentation is primarily about Erosion Control Structures but time permitting will include information on the Endangered Species Act, so it should fit best with structures but would also fit with regulatory issues.
Whether storm induced or the effect of sea level rise, Florida’s shorelines are receding. Three-fourths of Florida’s population reside in counties along more than 1,200 miles of coastline. It has been reported that these coastal counties represent a built-environment and infrastructure whose replacement value was $2.0 trillion in 2010 and is estimated to be $3.0 trillion by 2030.
The landward march of the shoreline threatens single and multi-family private residences, as well as the roads and public utilities that serve them. It also threatens the infrastructure that serves public recreational facilities along the coast. Allowing public and private investment in these improvements to become lost to the sea would cripple the State’s economy.
It has long been argued that beach nourishment is the preferred means to address the loss of uplands due to erosion; that coastal armoring will cause or accelerate erosion. However, beach nourishment typically is a time consuming process, involving both extensive permitting requirements and the acquisition of sufficient funds to accomplish the project. In many cases, particularly following storm events, beach nourishment is not a practical means to immediately prevent infrastructure and residences from being lost.
Additionally, finding an appropriate and adequate source of beach compatible sand for beach nourishment purposes is becoming increasingly difficult. Therefore, potentially coastal armoring may be the only viable option.
Unbeknownst to most Florida shoreline residents and local government officials, a recent regulation of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has all but eliminated coastal armoring as an option to protect upland structures. On July 10, 2014, an amendment to 50 CFR §17.95 designated significant portions of the shoreline of the State of Florida, as well as neighboring Southeast States, as critical habitat for the Northwest Atlantic Ocean distinct population segment of the loggerhead sea turtle. (Emphasis Added).
In Florida, the construction of a seawall, rock revetment, or other rigid coastal structures below the mean high water line of the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico, requires a State Coastal Construction Permit pursuant to the provisions of Section 161.041, Florida Statutes and the rules and regulations promulgated there under. Of particular note is Section 62B-41.0055(4), Florida Administrative Code. That rule, most recently amended in 2001, prohibits the construction of coastal armoring structures in Federally-designated critical habitat for marine turtles. There is no waiver or variance provision in the rule to avoid the prohibition.
Accordingly, unless circumstances allow for the construction of seawalls, revetments and the like entirely landward of the mean high water line, no State permit may be issued for the construction of rigid shore armoring to protect both private and public structures.
Before the next Big One hits Florida, it is imperative that public sector and private property owners join forces to remove the prohibition within Section 62B-41.0055(4), Florida Administrative Code. Additionally, the same coalition of interests need to seek an amendment of 50 CFR §17.95 to provide an opportunity to protect existing structures when no other viable option is available.
David M. Levin is a shareholder with the law firm of Icard/Merrill. After serving as a biologist for the Corps of Engineers, Mr. Levin earned his law degree in 1979 from the Cumberland School of Law. In 1980, he earned the prestigious Master of Law degree in Ocean and Coastal Law. Attorney Levin was an Assistant General Counsel of the Florida Dept. of Environmental Regulation, Environmental Prosecutor for the State Attorney 12th Judicial Circuit, and is currently City Attorney for the City of Punta Gorda. He limits his practice to Real Estate/Land Use Law, Environmental Law, and Local Governmental Law.
Moffatt & Nichol/Vice President
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, and New York City Department of Parks and Recreation have partnered to provide coastal storm risk management solutions for Coney Island. In January 1995, the Coney Island Reach, which extends from West 37th Street to Brighton Beach was completed. However, since 1995, erosion has continued west of the West 37th Street along the Sea Gate reach leading to the recent design and construction of four T-groin structures, one rock spur off the existing West 37th Street groin, and additional stone armoring of the existing Norton Point dike. Additionally, sand accumulated in Gravesend Bay as a result of continued nourishment of the Sea Gate reach is being removed and placed within the T-groin field along the Atlantic shoreline. The T-groins will help manage sediment movement and reduce erosion west of the W37th Street groin and thus reduce the need for periodic renourishment, which helps reduce the long-term costs of the overall Coney Island project. Construction of the Sea Gate reach of the project is nearly complete as of May 2016.
This presentation will focus on the extensive coastal engineering and design program undertaken to implement this project, which included empirical shoreline configuration estimates, numerical modeling as well as extensive physical modeling to optimize the size and configuration of the proposed structures. The numerical modeling included one-line shoreline evolution using the GENESIS-T model as well as detailed two-dimensional hydrodynamics, waves, sediment transport and morphology using the Delft3D model. The final selected configuration was designed to maintain a stable shoreline/profile, prevent flanking of the West 37th Street groin to maintain its integrity and prevents future sediment losses and accumulation in Gravesend Bay.
The physical model tests served to verify both the functional and structural design developed from empirical and numerical methods. Specifically, the model tests largely matched the projected shoreline planforms under equilibrium and relatively severe storm conditions. The model tests also showed that the coastal structures would hold up under design conditions.
Unique design solutions included steel sheet piles to construct the T-groin stems in order to reduce material costs and avoid potential constructability issues and modular concrete units installed along the core of the groin heads to reduce permeability and sand losses. Potential scour effects were also assessed in detail using numerical and physical model results. The design of the toe of the structures incorporated these scour estimates. The presentation will also include a discussion of the construction process and some of the lessons learned.
Santiago Alfageme, PE, D.CE currently serves as Moffatt & Nichol’s New York office Business Unit Leader and Senior Coastal Engineer. He holds a M.S. degree in Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering from the University of Florida and M.S. degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Cantabria, Spain. Over his 20 year career, he has worked on a wide range of marine and coastal projects including marina and port facilities, navigation, dredging, dredged material management, dredged material disposal, land reclamation work, beach nourishment, shoreline protection, storm damage reduction, and ecosystem restoration.
Coastal Science & Engineering
With increasing sea levels, property values, and costs of beach restoration projects, communities are reevaluating strategies and alternatives for beach management in effort to maximize longevity of the project, reduce long-term costs, and limit environmental impacts. Presently, beach nourishment using sand from an outside source is the most typical restoration alternative, but in cases of very high erosion rates, nourishment along has proven unsustainable due to rapid erosion rates. In some communities, structures such as groins are being evaluated or built with new design guidelines and management strategies aimed to improve project performance and avoid mistakes of the past. Some historical groin installation projects have been rightly noted as being damaging to downdrift beaches or otherwise failures due to poor design, lack of accompanying nourishment, and little or no maintenance. In South Carolina beachfront management regulations require that communities demonstrate the special need for groins at the site, evaluate potential downdrift impacts, provide a monitoring and maintenance plan, and set aside funds for mitigation and/or removal of any structure should impacts occur.
Four communities in South Carolina have recently constructed groins or planned modifications to existing groins. At Hilton Head Island and Folly Beach, terminal groins were installed to hold the downdrift ends of the islands in place. At Hunting Island, a total of six groins were installed in three separate clusters to slow historically chronic erosion. At Edisto Beach, existing groins are of insufficient length to protect homes, and are proposed to be lengthened up to 100 ft based on an empirical comparative study of the existing structures. At each community with newly constructed groins, the structures have been effective in reducing the erosion rate and maintaining a dry sand beach along the target area. For example, at Hunting Island, the erosion rate in the areas protected by groins has reduced from ~18.6 cy/ft per year to 3.7 cy/ft per year following the project (2007-2015). A discussion will be presented of the rationale, design, implementation, and performance of each project, as well as the basis for lengthening the groins at Edisto. Specific requirements for permitting, construction, and monitoring will be presented.
Steven Traynum is a coastal scientist and project manager for Coastal Science & Engineering with ten years of experience in coastal processes, beach nourishment planning and construction, beach monitoring, and community outreach. He obtained a Master’s Degree from the University of South Carolina in 2007 and has completed the coastal engineering certificate program from Old Dominion University. He serves as CSE’s project manager for several clients in South Carolina, providing community support, reports, and associated coastal engineering services.
Geotextile tubes were installed in late 2013 at the base of Sconset Bluff, a 70 to 90-foot tall glacially-formed sandy bluff located on the southeastern coast of Nantucket. Severe erosion of Sconset Bluff occurred during the 2012-2013 winter, causing the Town of Nantucket to declare an immediate need for emergency measures to protect the principal road (known as Baxter Road) that provides access and utilities to Sconset Bluff homeowners, as well as the only means of access to Sankaty Light, a historic lighthouse that is a major tourist destination. Three tiers of geotextile tubes were installed in December 2013 and January 2014; a fourth tier and returns were added in fall 2015. The total length of bluff protected is now approximately 950 feet.
In recognition of the fact that the bluff provides sand to the littoral system, the geotextile tubes are covered with a volume of sacrificial sand equivalent to 22 cubic yards (cy) of sand per linear foot of geotextile tube system, which is approximately 1.5 times the average volume of sand eroded each year from the unprotected bluff. Each year, over 20,000 cy of sand are delivered to the project site from sand pits located on the island. The sand is loaded onto conveyor belts at the top of the bluff and then dumped over the edge of the bluff, where it is spread by bulldozers on top of the geotextile tubes.
The project and surrounding beaches are subject to an extensive monitoring program. Six miles of shoreline surrounding the project area are monitored quarterly, with the spring and fall surveys including bathymetry to -35 feet Mean Low Water (MLW). An aerial survey of the bluff is performed annually to document changes to the bluff volume above the geotextile tubes and in adjacent unprotected areas. Underwater video monitoring is performed twice annually to observe benthic habitat and document any changes. Beach invertebrates are monitored during the summer to assess potential project impacts. Additionally, the geotextile tubes are monitored after each storm to evaluate the condition of the bluff, the amount of sand eroded from the sacrificial sand cover, the need for any repair of the geotextile tubes, the beach level in front of the geotextile tubes, and the occurrence of any flanking or end scour. While data collection is ongoing, monitoring data gathered thus far indicates that the geotextile tubes have prevented further erosion of the base of the bluff while avoiding impacts to downdrift beaches.
Maria Hartnett is a Senior Consultant at Epsilon Associates and holds a Master’s degree in Earth Sciences. Ms. Hartnett specializes in environmental permitting and scientific analyses for coastal and marine projects, dredging and disposal activities, and waterfront developments. For over 16 years, Ms. Hartnett has worked on behalf of Sconset Bluff homeowners to implement a viable erosion control solution.
GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc.
Pigeon Cove in Rockport, MA is home to the Pigeon Cove Fisherman’s Co-Op and provides mooring for commercial and recreational boats. It is located along Sandy Bay with full exposure to the Atlantic Ocean. Two breakwater structures, with origins dating back to 1831, provide protection to Pigeon Cove – the 1,000 foot long, granite stone, land-connected Upper Breakwater to the east and the 150 foot long, granite block Harbor Entrance Breakwater to the south. In 2010, both structures were damaged by a month long period of strong storm surge and waves (FEMA Disaster Declaration DR-1895-MA). In September 2012, the Town of Rockport hired GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. to evaluate the damage, prepare permit applications, and design repairs. However, before the project could be completed, both structures were further damaged by a two-day storm event in February 2013 (FEMA Disaster Declaration DR-4110-MA).
In 2014, a revised FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) became effective which increased the 1% flood elevation for Pigeon Cove by 10’ at the Upper Breakwater and 12’ at the Harbor Entrance Breakwater. At that time, the Town and GZA were coordinating the project scope and eligible reimbursement with FEMA and began exploring potential mitigating measures to incorporate into the repair project. Through extensive collaboration and coordination extending over nearly two years, mitigation was approved by FEMA for both the Upper Breakwater and the Harbor Entrance Breakwater.
Construction began in November 2015. Work at the Upper Breakwater includes repair or reconstruction of ten damage zones and incorporation of a mid-slope berm along the entire Upper Breakwater to help with wave energy dissipation. Because a temporary access road was necessary to complete the breakwater repairs, the construction costs for the mid-slope berm were partially offset making the mitigation work more cost effective. Work at the Harbor Entrance Breakwater includes reconstruction of the damaged structure above high water with a concrete-core faced with the existing granite blocks to maintain the historic aesthetics of the structure. With an overall combined project cost of $4,660,000, the project is a significant undertaking for the 7,500 year-round residents of the Town.
The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the 2010 and 2013 damage to the Upper Breakwater and Harbor Entrance Breakwater; development of repairs and mitigation; coordination with FEMA; the Town’s approach to fully-fund the project in order to begin construction before final approval of the scope of work from FEMA; and an overview of construction.
Ms. Coviello is a waterfront, structural engineer on the Technical Practice Committee of GZA’s Marine and Waterfront Group. She has a broad range of experience from the varied waterfront and near-shore projects in which she has been involved, including bridge protection systems; piers and wharves; bulkheads; seawalls; revetments; breakwaters; and marinas. She also coordinates with GZA’s coastal flood and storm modeling and vulnerability specialists to advance awareness of potential vulnerabilities and adaptation planning for waterfront infrastructure and coastal features. She highlights coastal risk and hazards and resiliency through active participation in professional organizations, volunteer boards, and community outreach.
Co-authors: Cheryl W. Coviello, P.E. (GZA), Anders B. Bjarngard, P.E. (GZA) and Timothy Olson (Town of Rockport, MA). Co-presenters: Cheryl Coviello and Timothy Olson
The Nature Conservancy
There are close to 200,000 thousands of acres of tidal marsh in New Jersey that form a broad band of flooded grass lands along the Delaware and Atlantic coasts of the state. They are so extensive that they are one of defining features of the landscape. Not only are the incredibly beautiful, but they also provide critical habitat for wildlife popular with birders and fishermen, they clean the water and the air, and buffer the coasts providing some protection from erosion and flooding.
Salt marshes are lost in what can be described as a death by 1,000 cuts. They have been ditched drained, filled, eroded by wind and boat waves, and can even drown from the inside out when sediment inputs don’t allow them to build fast enough to keep pace with sea level rise and local substance rates or when changes to hydrology lead to die off of wetland vegetation. Wetland plant roots bind the soil together, keeping the land in place, and the leaves trap sediments allowing the marshes to gain elevation. Once the vegetation dies the roots are no longer able to bind the soil and the land can quickly erode away and become mudflat or open water leading to a loss of this valuable ecosystem.
Marshes that have been lost can be rebuilt by importing sediment and in some cases, spreading sediments over existing marshes can help them persist into the future mitigating the effects of sea level rise, subsidence, and decreased sediment loads in tidal water.
At the same time, boat channels in NJ are clogged with sediment and one of the major barriers to dredging them is that traditional places to dispose of dredged sediment, confined disposal facilities, are full.
So we have salt marshes that may be restored or made more resilient using sediment and boat channels that need to get rid of sediment. Combining dredging projects with salt marsh restoration projects that use imported sediments promises to help fund habitat restoration and as well as making it easier to keep boat channels clear.
However, we must proceed cautiously to make sure that applying sediment to the marsh provides the benefits we expect and doesn’t have lasting negative impacts to the environment. We also have to make sure that these combined projects don’t just become ways of disposing of dredged sediments – they must be done in areas of marsh that are degraded and where it has been determined that the degradation can be addressed through adding sediment.
Pilot projects that test the idea of pairing dredging projects with tidal marsh restoration have been undertaken in NJ. Lessons learned from implementing these projects will be presented.
Metthea Yepsen is a Coastal Projects Manager for the New Jersey Chapter of The Nature Conservancy. She has been working with the State of New Jersey and The US Army Corps of Engineers for the past 2.5 years to implement and study the beneficial use of dredge material to restore salt marshes. Prior work has included assessing the ecosystem services provided by USDA wetland restoration programs and developing standardized monitoring plans for environmental restoration carried out under the DWH Oil Spill NRDA in the Gulf of Mexico.
Hurricane Sandy had a major impact on tidal marshes and beaches and their ability to mitigate storm damage, provide social and environmental services, and support essential functions of their ecological systems. An integrated approach through the North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (NALCC), using existing knowledge and networks of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), seeks to deliver information and tools needed to guide adaptation and conservation decisions to increase the resilience of tidal marshes, beach systems, shorelines and communities to future storms, sea level rise and other stressors. This work seeks to translate scientific information and deliver information in accessible communication venues for regional, state, and local level applications to enhance existing capacities to increase coastal hazard resilience. Two projects have resulted from the integrated approach between NALCC and MARCO. The Developing Wetland Restoration Priorities project, conducted in collaboration with the Environmental Law Institute, will identify science-based wetlands and waters priority-setting tools already in use that can aid in resilience, including suitable tools used outside the MARCO region. It will also determine the overlaps between priority-setting methodologies for wetlands and waters and those for coastal resilience. Through this exercise, the project will identify the climate- and resilience-related data gaps in current priority-setting methodologies and the data sources that may inform the development of new tools. It will then identify opportunities for adoption of, and modifications or additions to, existing priority-setting tools to incorporate climate change and coastal resilience factors. The project will create a framework to use available tools to identify which Mid-Atlantic wetland areas are most vulnerable to climate impacts, which areas would be priorities for restoration based on risk reduction, and long-term wetland restoration targets given climate impacts. The second project is on Improved Use and Understanding of Natural and Nature Based Features (NNBF), done in collaboration with the National Wildlife Federation. Through this work, NNBF is evaluated in light of climate change, specifically addressing questions of: 1) How will NNBF respond to sea-level rise and climate change impacts? 2) What are the strengths and limitations of NNBF in reducing upland impacts? 3) How can NNBF be modified or adapted over time with climate change? Through these guiding questions, the project seeks to deepen and broaden stakeholders’ understanding around the appropriate use of NNBF and increase awareness and coordination across organizations, agencies and states. The project will also build local decision makers’ knowledge on the economic, ecologic, and societal benefits associated with the use of NNBF as climate change adaptation. Finally, the project will provide guidance on a coordinated, regional approach to using NNBF to build climate resilience that can be employed and adapted at the local and state levels. Both projects conducted under the collaboration between MARCO and NALCC seek to address climate change adaptation in coastal communities of the Mid-Atlantic region, however there are important pieces of knowledge that can be gained from both projects that can inform wetland prioritization and the use of NNBF by coastal communities across the United States.
Kaity Goldsmith is Project Manager at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO). Kaity had previously served with the Governor’s Natural Resources Office in Oregon. She earned a Master of Environmental Management with a focus in coastal and marine ecology and policy from Portland State University in Oregon. She also attended Bryant University in Rhode Island where she received her Bachelor of Science in Business Administration with a concentration in Management and a minor in French. At MARCO, Kaity supports the 4 MARCO priorities through project development and oversight. She oversees the MARCO Climate Change Action Team (CCAT).
Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi
Several airborne mapping approaches will be examined to compare submerged pipeline delineation and benthic mapping in shallow coastal water. First, high resolution multispectral aerial imagery are examined to delineate submerged structures, specifically residual oil and gas pipelines, in Shamrock Cove region of Corpus Christi Bay TX. Different image processing algorithms for edge detection including sobel, prewitt, and canny are examined to automate delineation of potential submerged pipelines. The acquired imagery is also exposed to varying degrees of sun glint that can occlude visibility below the water surface. To improve visibility, glint correction methods are implemented and compared to non-glint corrected imagery for pipeline delineation. Next, results are compared to detection of submerged structures using bathymetric lidar through examination of lidar-derived bathymetric digital elevation models (DEMs) and multi-resolution bathymetric shaded reliefs. Finally, a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) is flown over a portion of a shallow bay with varying benthic cover including sea grass and bare bottom to evaluate structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry for benthic mapping. To examine the effects of sun glint, bottom texture, and water surface dynamics on the SfM result, image preconditioning methods are tested such as single band vs. multiband input. Effects of these methods on the SfM feature correspondence and point cloud densification results underwater are examined. The goal of this final component is to assess the effectiveness of a standard SfM processing workflow with image preconditioning for mapping of shallow water bathymetry.
Behrokh Nazeri is a graduate student at Texas A&M University- Corpus Christi in Geospatial Surveying Engineering. He is Teaching assistant at Conrad Blucher institute and research assistant at MANTIS lab.
Michael Starek (Co-author) is assistant professor at Texas A&M University- Corpus Christi.
Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies
North Padre Island is a barrier island trending northeast to southwest along the southern portion of the Texas Gulf Coast which is a predominantly erosional microtidal, wave- and storm-dominated coast. The Texas Open Beaches Act permits vehicular traffic and grooming. A growing concern has become the impact of grooming actions on both the health of wildlife and beach morphology. The goal of this study is to observe and monitor how grooming activities influence the moveable sand bed of the natural beach on a very short time scale using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). The TLS will perform scans every hour on the day preceding a grooming, the day of the grooming event, and the first 2 days following the grooming event. The point clouds will be transformed into Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that will be differenced using map algebra to identify morphological changes between them. The study site, a dune walkover just north of Bob Hall Pier, contains a Texas Coastal Ocean Observation Network station which will allow natural processes to be monitored throughout the study so that anthropogenic influences can be extracted. The sediment movement monitored by this time series of DEMs will determine how the beach responds to management practices, indicate whether or not these practices are harmful or disruptive to natural processes, and provide important insights into small-scale processes for modeling sediment transport and morphodynamics.
Melanie Gingras is a Coastal and Marine System Science graduate student at Texas A&M Corpus Christi. She majored in geology and minored in chemistry at the University of Delaware from where she graduated in the spring of 2013. Currently, her research interests and thesis work focuses on GIS and remote sensing applications in dynamic coastal environments.
Coastal Research Center, Stockton University
The Coastal Research Center at Stockton University (CRC) was created in 1981 to assist local municipalities with coastal environmental issues related to recurring storm damage and shoreline retreat. Since then the CRC has been working on shoreline monitoring and assessment programs with the State of New Jersey and several municipalities in New Jersey. The CRC has also been a resource for geotechnical data working on numerous projects with Federal, State and municipal governments. The CRC’s continuing mission is to monitor and assess New Jersey’s coastal zone resources.
In keeping the theme Lighting the Way for the Coastal Future, this presentation will focus on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) surveys our organization performed for the US Fish and Wildlife Service.
The Coastal Research Center at Stockton University (CRC) began a partnership with the US Fish and Wildlife Service in March 2014 to conduct annual Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) surveys at two ocean front beaches within the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge for the purpose of evaluating changes to critical wildlife habitat. Terrestrial LiDAR systems were deployed at the Holgate Unit and at Little Beach areas of the refuge in the spring of 2014, 2015 and 2016. The Holgate Unit is located at the southern end of Long Beach Island in Ocean County and has experienced long-term shoreline erosion. Little Beach is the only natural, uninhabited barrier island along the New Jersey coast and has undergone major morphological changes. Classified point clouds were used to create Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). These models were used to identify geomorphic features, such as dunes and overwash plains and also to monitor changes in the shoreline position. Geomorphic fluctuations of these features were quantified by determining changes in elevation and volume between each survey. This information will greatly aid the US Fish and Wildlife Service to document and evaluate changes to critical habitat areas for threatened or endangered species and other wildlife.
Marcus Gruver is a Geospatial Analyst at the Stockton University’s Coastal Research Center. Graduating from Stockton in 2004 with a BS in Environmental Science, and a GIS certification from Penn State.
Delaware Geological Survey
Geologic mapping of surficial deposits onshore Delaware has been extended to five miles offshore as part of a BOEM-funded cooperative agreement. While offshore sand resource evaluation has been ongoing, formal mapping of surficial units offshore has only begun in the last few years. Geologic mapping of surficial deposits onshore Delaware is well established with published 1:24,000-scale geologic maps for the entire Delaware Atlantic Coast region. Using approximately 400 offshore vibracore records, samples, and descriptions representing over 40 years of surveys, late Pliocene to late Pleistocene geologic units mapped onshore are now mapped offshore. These older offshore deposits are overlain by very thin (<0.5 ft) to very thick (>20 ft) Holocene sediments that reflect present offshore environmental conditions. In places, no Holocene sediments are present, and older deposits are at the sea floor. The middle-Pleistocene Lynch Heights Fm. and Omar Fm. are muddy, lagoonal deposits that appear to be restricted to paleovalleys. The high percentage of silt and clay and only intermittent presence of sand preclude these units from being beach nourishment resources. The late Pliocene Beaverdam Fm. occurs over a large area offshore, commonly at the sea floor, or with only a thin Holocene cover. This unit is primarily sand and has been used as a source for beach replenishment material. The unit, however, contains a significant amount of pebbles which creates problems both at the dredge site and post-emplacement on the beach. Of the offshore Holocene sediments, sheet sands and shoal (ridge) deposits have the greatest potential for sand resources. Both of these units, however, are variable in thickness and distribution and require detailed, site-specific mapping for sand resource evaluation. Geologic mapping is critical for offshore sand resource investigation and is a valuable tool in identifying target areas for beach replenishment material. Using geologic mapping to identify the sediment characteristics of each unit and the unit’s geographic proximity to replenishment sites can significantly streamline the process of targeting sand resources, constraining their distribution, and determining volumes available for future nourishment projects.
Co-authors: Trevor L. Metz, Kelvin W. Ramsey, Jaime L. Tomlinson, John F. Wehmiller, Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716
University of New Hampshire/Research Associate Professor
The coast of New Hampshire (NH), like many paraglacial environments, is extremely heterogeneous ranging from bedrock outcrops, beaches interrupted by rocky headlands or remnant glacial features (e.g., drumlins), and barrier islands. The composition of the beaches reflects this extreme variability ranging from fine sand to cobbles with bimodal sediment populations being common. The NH shoreline to date has exhibited only small changes in position largely due to the low relative sea-level rise, bedrock outcrops, and extensive engineering structures. Changes in the location of the NH shoreline was determined from charts and orthophotography dating back to the late 1800s and more recent lidar surveys using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Due to its relatively short length (~29 km), the entire coast was analyzed at a fine (50 m) spatial resolution. In general, the larger southern barrier beaches show a small net seaward movement (accretion), while the northern beaches show a small net shoreward movement (erosion). In contrast, the beaches have undergone larger vertical changes (volumetric) based on comparison of lidar surveys and seasonal beach profiling. Comparison of the lidar surveys from 2000 to 2014 showed large variability in trends, but most beaches appeared to have a net loss of sediment. However, the two largest beaches in the state (Hampton Beach and Seabrook Beach) show more gains than losses. To offset the vertical changes in elevation and to extend their widths, selected beaches have periodically been nourished. Although coastal erosion issues in NH have not been overwhelming, the expected acceleration in sea-level rise and the increase in storm severity will result in new challenges and requires building coastal resiliency. To address this expected need, offshore sources of suitable sand and gravel resources are being evaluated with significant support from Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, the New Hampshire Geological Survey, and the University of New Hampshire Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center. Similar to the shoreline environment, the continental shelf of NH and vicinity is extremely heterogeneous and is composed of extensive bedrock outcrops, sand and gravel deposits, and muddier sediments. Depositional features are dominated by remnant glacial features (e.g., drumlins, eskers, moraines) that have been significantly modified by marine processes as sea level fluctuated following deglaciation. The glacial deposits have been eroded leaving very coarse lag deposits, while supplying sand to develop wave formed features (shoals). Many of these features have positive relief standing above the seafloor, lending evidence of their formation by waves and shallow water currents. Of particular interest is a large sand body that is ~3.2 km in length, ~1.3 km in width and has a maximum relief of ~7 m. As a result of the heterogeneity of the NH shelf, locating significant sand and gravel deposits is challenging. However, some of these modified glacial deposits and associated shoals, as well as some marine formed shoals, represent significant sand and gravel deposits that have the potential for future use for beach nourishment and other efforts to build coastal resiliency.
Authors: Ward1,3, L., McAvoy1, Z., Olson2, N., Vallee-Anziani1, M., Chormann2, F., McPherran3, K. and Nifong1,3, K.
Larry Ward has a Ph.D. from the University of South Carolina (1978) in Marine Geology. Primary interests include estuarine, coastal, and inner shelf sedimentology and surficial processes. Dr. Ward’s most recent research has focused on estuarine sedimentological processes and depositional environments, coastal geomorphology and erosion, the physical characteristics of inner shelf bottom habitats, and the stratigraphy, sea level history and Holocene evolution of nearshore marine systems.
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
Significant surficial sand deposits in the form of large shoals and ridges are a key source of sediment for larger shore protection and beach nourishment projects. Alternate sand sources will be needed as shoal and ridge deposits are depleted by dredging. Some ancient river channels, or paleochannels, may contain large volumes of desirable sand. Because they are subsurface, locating and delineating paleochannels requires a higher level of effort than shoals and ridges. The hydrologic modeling capabilities of geographic information systems software (i.e., ArcGIS) can be applied to existing bathymetric maps to generate reconstructions of paleochannel distribution. Combining these paleochannel reconstructions with shallow sub-bottom stratigraphy profiles provides insight into the location and orientation of paleochannels, and their relationship to seafloor bathymetry.
Dr. Paul O. Knorr is a Geologist with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management’s Marine Minerals Program. As a Marine Minerals geologist, he studies marine sediment distribution, seafloor morphodynamics, and facilitates the leasing of Outer Continental Shelf minerals (i.e., sand) for coastal resiliency projects.
NJ Department of Environmental Protection
The November 5, 2012 adoption of the Coastal Rules established the ability for municipalities to develop Municipal Public Access Plans (MPAP). These plans support the State’s goals of providing public access to all tidal waterways for both residents and visitors while allowing the communities to determine their vision for how and where public access would best be provided. The NJDEP’s Office of Coastal and Land Use Planning is working with municipalities to support the development of MPAPs that create a plan for local implementation, as well as determining the locations and types of public access that will be required in NJDEP permits. To aid in MPAP development the following tools have been developed NJDEP:
This session will highlight the efforts made by local municipalities and the NJDEP to develop meaningful and comprehensive MPAPs. The session will specifically address:
Rebecca Foster – Municipal Public Access Planning project manager, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Coastal and Land Use Planning.
Heather Fenyk, PhD, AICP/PP is Founding Principal of Global Metrics, LLC, an urban planning research and consulting firm based in New Brunswick, NJ, and President of the Lower Raritan Watershed Partnership, New Jersey’s newest watershed association.
Angela C. Andersen is the sustainability coordinator for long beach township in ocean county NJ- she has a MA in Environment and Community and BS in Environemtnal Studies. She was named Sustainability Hero in Feburary 2015 by Sustainable JErsey and a USEPA Environmental Champion recipient in 2015. She is a Certified Recycling Professional and a nationally recognized Sustainable Resource Managment Professional. Long Beach Township won the Governors Environmental Excellence Award for Healthy and Sustainble Community in 2015 and is a certified Sustainble Jersey town. Andersen implements pioneering efforts in the community in collaboration with various organizations, agencies and civic groups.
Texas A&M University
Traditionally, coastlines have been engineered to maintain structural stability and protect property when hit with waves or storm energy, but their ability to hold fast will be challenged over the next century. Can the strategic use of vegetation help protect coastal communities and ecosystems? The use of vegetation to reduce erosion on high-energy beaches, dunes, and barrier islands could be part of a more flexible strategy. Though there is growing enthusiasm for using vegetation as protection, empirical data supporting this use are lacking. We review multiple on-going projects that focus on vegetation’s potential role including: the capture of sediment, ecological succession, and the subsequent building of beaches, dunes, and islands; the development of wave-resistant soils by increasing effective grain size and sedimentary cohesion; the ability of aboveground architecture to attenuate waves and retard through-flow; the capability of roots to bind sediments under wave action; and the alteration of coastline resiliency by plant physiognomic and physiological traits. We conclude that sustainable management will require a more dynamic vision of the coast, integrating ecology into engineering practices.
Dr. Rusty Feagin is a Professor in the Department of Ecosystem Science and Management at Texas A&M University. He studies sand dunes, salt marshes, beaches, and other coastal ecosystems. The central question of study in his lab is how coastal vegetation responds to and modifies its sedimentary environment, particularly in the context of long-term sea level rise versus short-term extreme disturbances. He hopes his scientific work is translated into action through restoration and the sustainable management of coasts.
Co-authors: Rusty A. Feagin (1), Matthew Furman (1), Karla Salgado (2), Marisa Martinez (2), Thomas Huff (1), Rodolfo Silva (3), Jake Sigren (4), Jens Figlus (4), Daniel T. Cox (5)
1 Texas A&M University
2 Instituto de Ecologia, A.C.
3 Universidad Autonoma de Mexico
4 Texas A&M University-Galveston
5 Oregon State University
Assist. Professor, Ocean Engineering, Texas A&M University
Along many of our coastlines barrier islands are the first line of defense against wave attack and damage from storm surge. Understanding the complex hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes associated with storm impact is essential in developing appropriate coastal management strategies to protect these fragile resources. Unfortunately, these kind of data sets are scarce. For this case study a narrow, low-lying barrier island in a sediment-starved system along the upper Texas coast in the Gulf of Mexico was investigated because it represents the most vulnerable stretch of coastline along the upper Texas coast. LiDAR, topographic, and bathymetric surveys were collected before and after Hurricane Ike (2008) to investigate the storm’s impact on the island morphology. The hydrodynamic data collected during the storm show that even though the barrier island was located on the weak side of the hurricane (approximately 50 km west of the landfall location), storm surge levels reached 2.2 m with significant wave heights of up to 4.8 m during the peak of the storm. Various interaction regimes occurred during passage of the storm including impact, overtopping, inundation, and storm surge ebb, each with different effects on the morphology of the island. The dynamic morphology changes during each interaction regime are difficult to assess using only pre and post storm snapshots. To address this issue, the physical processes governing the real-time morphodynamic response of the beach and dune system during 96 hours of hurricane impact were modeled using XBeach (2D) and CSHORE (1D) with hydrodynamic boundary conditions provided by an ADCIRC + SWAN simulation. Modeling results show that the complete morphodynamic response of the barrier island system to the hurricane was far more complex than suggested by only before and after storm topography surveys. The extensive offshore-directed sediment transport during the impact regime, followed by overwash and inundation flow with a landward-directed transport component and finally the flow reversal during an intense offshore-directed storm surge ebb left the subaerial portion of the barrier island flattened and its dune system destroyed. In addition, over 70 scour channels were carved into the beach face during the storm surge ebb regime. While the numerical model analysis with XBeach was better suited to quantify magnitude and direction of eroded and deposited sediment volume during each impact regime, the CSHORE simulations provided better estimates of the foreshore and beach slope during hurricane impact. The analysis shows that the majority of sediment erosion occurred during the inundation and ebb flow regimes with the bay-directed sediment transport during inundation being somewhat larger than the offshore-directed transport during storm surge ebb. Understanding exactly how barrier islands respond to short-term storm impacts is essential in understanding how they may evolve in the long-term. Especially in sediment-limited environments storm events may be crucial in re-distributing sediment and activating sediment sources (i.e. tidal shoals) to aid in the barrier island’s efforts to adjust to sea level changes.
Dr. Figlus is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Ocean Engineering at Texas A&M University where he teaches courses in coastal engineering and fluid dynamics. His research work focuses on sediment transport, coastal hydrodynamics, morphodynamics of barrier island systems and vegetated dunes as well as novel approaches to coastal structures for storm surge suppression. Dr. Figlus conducts field instrumentation studies and laboratory wave tank experiments and utilizes process-based numerical models to study the associated coastal processes. He obtained both his Masters and Ph.D. degree in civil engineering from the University of Delaware with an emphasis in coastal engineering.
Texas A&M University– Department of Ocean Engineering/Ph.D. Candidate
Hybrid coastal defense systems have been in use in many places around the world to protect coastal areas from flooding and preserve the natural aesthetic qualities of the coast. Those systems are spatially concentrating the benefits of both hard (i.e. rubble mound structures, revetments, dikes, seawalls) and soft defenses (i.e. sand dunes) into a single hybrid structure to reduce major storm impacts.
The Houston-Galveston Metropolitan area is one of the coastal areas in the United States that has experienced its share of severe hurricane impacts in the past. It is a highly populated area with vital oil and gas infrastructure as well as numerous ecological resources. In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Island and caused significant flooding and severe damages. A feasible solution to protect the Houston-Galveston Metropolitan area from flooding caused by hurricane-generated surge and wave impact is being developed by an international consortium of research institutions and government agencies, led by Texas A & M University at Galveston (TAMUG). The proposed storm surge barrier would be located along the coast of Galveston Island and the Bolivar Peninsula. It would be an extension of the existing Galveston seawall and its hybrid nature would provide the required level of protection and blend in with the natural fabric of the island. The engineering design of such hybrid structures including the effect of the sand cover has not yet been addressed. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of the sand layer on the hybrid system level of protection and construction cost. A set of flume tests on a physical model rubble-mound cross section covered by sand is being conducted in the Coastal Processes Flume at TAMUG. The physical model parameters are directly related to prototype dimensions of a potential Houston-Galveston area storm surge protection scheme. The tests are aimed at assessing overtopping discharge rates based on the crest height of the hard structure and the applied sand cover. In addition, the morphological changes of the sand cover will be investigated to address its wave energy dissipation potential which is thought to aid in reducing the overall volume and crest elevation of the embedded hard structure, and thus, provide potential cost savings.
Badreyah Almarshed is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Ocean Engineering at Texas A&M University. Her research focuses on the design of innovative coastal defense systems to reduce the impact of severe storms. Badreyah’s dissertation work involves physical modeling of innovative hybrid coastal structures and their effects on coastal areas. Using physical modeling, Badreyah investigates the effects of sand covering traditional hard coastal structures on overtopping rates and wave run-up levels associated with these hybrid coastal structures. Badreyah received her Bachelor and Master of Science in Coastal Engineering from Kuwait University before joining Texas A&M to pursue her Ph.D. degree in Ocean Engineering.
Galveston Island Park Board of Trustees; Executive Director
Galveston Island is a barrier island on the upper Texas coast, located approximately 50 miles south of Houston and 50 miles west of the Texas-Louisiana border at the Sabine River. It is the second most visited tourist destination in Texas and Galveston Island’s beaches are its biggest tourist attraction, drawing over 6,000,000 visitors annually. But, Galveston Island is a sand limited, largely erosional, barrier island experiencing erosion rates exceeding 8ft – 10 ft per year in areas, with other parts of the island rapidly accreting.
For well over 125 years inhabitants of Galveston Island have sought to take control of the coastline through a series of manmade structures that include the paired North and South Jetties, Galveston Seawall, Seawall groin field, and the grade raising of the entire city. These activities sought simply to preserve life on Galveston Island with little thought given to the cumulative impact of these actions. Additionally, it was a common activity for builders, contractors, and others to mine the existing dunes for fill material to support whatever construction project was pending at the time. This ongoing construction activity was magnified and exacerbated by daily beach maintenance practices that included the use of bulldozers, maintainers, front-end loaders and other mechanized equipment.
This presentation will provide a brief explanation of Galveston’s past and primarily focus on the actions that began four (4) years ago to improve the overall health of the island’s beaches through an integrated program of sustainable maintenance practices. This includes an assessment of the existing maintenance fleet and practices, recognition of existing deficiencies, and initiating corrective actions, training and cross-training of coastal zone staff, cultivating public support and the political will necessary to actually implement change- (that is sometimes very expensive.) A chief component of revising maintenance practices was the understanding that Galveston’s beaches could not survive, or be available for future generations if management practices did not change quickly. The protection and preservation of dunes and dune vegetation is one of the top priorities, maintenance equipment has a greatly reduced environmental footprint- resulting in a reduced impact to the beach/dune system. The offsetting result is that while resulting in less direct impact, quite often it results in much greater personnel costs. Central to this effort is the development of a recognized system of sustainable best management practices with consistent and uniform terminology, that incorporates scientific research into public policy decision making, actively pursuing various grant funding opportunities to leverage local funds to initiate needed change and sharing the vision with all stakeholders. In coordination with local stakeholders and the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the Galveston Park Board has adopted the USACE report Galveston Island, Texas, Sand Management Strategies as one of the foundational pieces of its sustainable plan of caring for Galveston’s beaches.
Ms. Kelly de Schaun is Executive Director Galveston Park Board of Trustees, in Galveston, Texas. Her responsibilities include oversight and management of all aspects of the Convention and Visitors Bureau; major annual events including Mardi Gras, Bike Week, Dickens on the Strand and the environmental management of the island’s 32 miles of beach that make Galveston the State of Texas second most popular tourist destination. Ms. de Schaun received her Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Houston in Hotel / Restaurant Management, with a secondary degree in Spanish language; and her Master of Science degree from the University of Texas at Austin. She has previously served as a Peace Corp volunteer and has 20 years of international management and executive experience at major tourist destinations throughout the Caribbean and was the founding Director of the Caribbean Hotel and Tourism Association that provides services to 850 Caribbean hotels in 39 countries.
Moffatt & Nichol
The Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) has received grants from Hurricane Sandy funding to rehabilitate and improve environmental functionality and sustainability for areas along the Delaware Bay shoreline. The areas included in this presentation are: 1) Little River; 2) Little Creek Wildlife Management Area (LCWMA); 3) Ted Harvey Conservation Area (THCA); 4) Mispillion Inlet Complex; 5) Swains Beach; and 6) Port Mahon Road. The section of the Little River begins at Route 9 approximately 4 miles due east of the State Capitol building in Dover and flows a little over two miles into Delaware Bay. LCWMA is located on both the north and south sides of the Little River; the impoundments used for the projects are located south of the river. THCA is located about 5 miles south of LCWMA along the Saint Jones River. Mispillion Inlet and Swains Beach are located about 15 miles south of LCWMA. Port Mahon Road is located one mile north of Little River; the project is about 1.5 miles along the Delaware Bay shore.
Mr. Peter Kotulak is an Associate and Senior Coastal Engineer with Moffatt & Nichol in their Baltimore office. He is a project manager and design engineer with over 34 years of experience in coastal engineering, dredging and environmental consulting. He is a registered Professional Engineer in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio and Delaware. Since joining M&N in 1994, he has specialized in projects involving coastal engineering with rock structures and sand, dredged material management including beneficial use, and environmental restoration of degraded shorelines.
Stevens Institute of Technology
In October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused immense damage throughout the entire Metropolitan region, exposing just how ill-prepared the coastal communities of the eastern seaboard actually were. One of these areas was Tottenville, Staten Island which to this day remains without proper protection.
In response to Hurricane Sandy’s devastation to the northeast, the Rebuild by Design competition was launched to develop innovative, implementable solutions to respond to the region’s needs. One proposed alternative for Tottenville consists of living breakwaters and an on-shore dune system. In response, and towards completion of the senior design requirements at Stevens, we have developed our own alternative solution for this neighborhood.
For a coastal community such as Tottenville, it is imperative that the area receive maximum protection, while still allowing residents to interact with the beachfront. These residents currently have the benefits of a beautiful waterfront view and accessibility to the beach and would not tolerate a large structure obstructing their views. Our team took these needs into account while designing protective measures for the community. The geography of Tottenville makes it difficult to design a single, uniform protection structure along the entire coastline, so we have come up with a customizable, hybrid design that is broken up into three zones based off of existing geographic conditions.
The final design is a multi-part, hybrid structure that contributes to three main objectives: risk reduction, social resilience and ecological enhancement. In the northern zone, residences are only separated from the beachfront by a single road. To provide adequate protection, a permanent concrete seawall featuring a recurved face and an integrated temporary wall serves as the backbone to the design. The recurved wall minimizes wave overtopping and the temporary wall extension provides additional protection in the most severe storms, When not in use, the wall is retracted back within the permanent wall to maintain optimal beach views. In the central zone of the project footprint, there is a larger separation between the beachfront and the community. Here, a terraced stair-scape emerges from the base of the seawall, providing residents and visitors a gathering and recreational space. In the southern section, where the seawall abuts a city park, the hard infrastructure transitions into a system of two earthen berms. The purpose of the seaward berm is to attenuate a significant amount wave energy and allow the landward berm to serve as a flood barrier for any overtopped water.
Tottenville has for too long borne the brunt of storm impacts due to its location and surrounding geography. While we cannot alter the reality of rising sea levels, we have provided the stability to the coastline that Tottenville needs and deserves.
Our team, the Coastal and Beach Redevelopment Agency (COBRA), consists of four students from the Stevens Senior Design Team, specifically Brian Riley, Kaitlyn Astel, Kieran Cross, and Jeremiah Ybanez. We are all Civil Engineering majors from the New York Metropolitan area, so we are unfortunately too familiar with the damaging effects that Hurricane Sandy has had on our respective communities. We have each taken engineering courses in coastal and flood-plain analysis, as well as multi-hazard engineering, and came together for this project under one unified goal, which was the desire to protect our coastlines from future devastation.
GZA / Assistant Project Manager
Super Storm Sandy caused wide-spread flooding in coastal New Jersey in October, 2012. One of the facilities effected by flooding was a power-generating plant that supplies energy to the greater New York City metropolitan area. Although the facility is about eight miles inland from New York Bay, the plant is vulnerable to flooding due to coastal storm surges due to its relatively low elevation and its close proximity to estuaries and tidal rivers.
It was necessary to fully evaluate and understand the flood hazard and incorporate lessons learned from the Sandy experience to implement a dependable flood mitigation strategy to avoid future disruptions due to flooding. This included: a) development of flood frequency curves characterizing the nearby coastal storm surge flooding risk, and b) hydrodynamic modeling of storm surge flooding on a site-specific level. The flood potential at the facility includes both extra tropical storms (aka Nor’easters) and tropical storms (including both hurricanes and tropical storms). A number of different computer programs were used to further the understanding of flooding at the site: maximum flood depths, flow pathways and velocities, and inundation duration. Storm surge simulations of Sandy and synthetic tropical storms (including hurricanes) were performed using the NOAA Sea, Lake and Overland Surge from Hurricanes (SLOSH) model. Hydraulic modeling using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer model FLO-2D was performed to propagate the flood from the coast to the plant, including modeling the topography in detail, minor watercourses, and significant roadway embankments and bridges, and plant features (e.g., buildings). The effects of wind-generated waves at the plant were evaluated using the WHAFIS computer program. Maximum flood elevations at the plant were recommended for key return periods ranging from the 50-year to the 500-year flood to inform the design of the flood protection system.
The site risk was fully assessed, including a detailed indexing of vulnerabilities and pathways for flooding to enter areas important to the facility’s function. The FLO-2D model was used to evaluate the effects of the flood protection system. A perimeter flood protection system was among the flood mitigation options evaluated as part of the study. Several potential temporary perimeter protection systems were assessed. Other local improvements were also designed and implemented. Mapping and graphical mock-ups were developed to communicate the flood protection features to the plant owner. Another important part of the work included evaluating the effects of the system on flooding of the surrounding area, to ensure that flood protection of the site would not adversely affect neighboring sites. Order-of Magnitude cost estimate and installation time of flood mitigation alternatives were developed as part of the study.
Co-authors: Bryant Furtado, PE (GZA); David M. Leone; PE (GZA); Nick Gazzo (Kiewit)
Bryant Furtado, PE is a water resources engineer and Assistant Project Manager in GZA’s Norwood, MA office. Mr. Furtado has 10 years of experience in water resources engineering; duties include hydrodynamic computer modeling of coastal and riverine environments, Post-Fukushima External Flood Hazard Re-evaluations of nuclear power plants, open channel hydraulics modeling, and stormwater design. Mr. Furtado holds a BS in Civil Engineering from the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais in Brazil and MS in Civil Engineering from the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Mr. Furtado is a P.E. in MA, and is current a BSCES and ASDSO member.
Monmouth University/Marine Scientist
Co-authors: James Nickels (1), Joe Barris (2), Brittany Ashman (2), Margaret Murnane Brooks (2), Mike Oppegaard (2), and Michael Schwebel (1)
1 Monmouth University
2 Monmouth County
Monmouth County Office of Emergency Management (MCOEM), Monmouth University Urban Coast Institute (MUUCI) and fifteen Monmouth County Shore Area towns impacted by Super Storm Sandy are working jointly on a High Water Mark Initiative (HWM) to inform and educate the public in affected towns. Project involves surveying in high water elevations and affixing markers and signage at various locations within the municipalities. Signs either just show high water mark and date or also give a link to a county web site for additional information. The goal is to help show high water marks, promote public discussion and education. FEMA is providing funding for signage and participating towns get Community Rating System points.
The winter of 2015/2016 was notable for a pair of storms that caused severe beach erosion along portions of the Atlantic Coast. In late September, Hurricane Joaquin stalled off the Southeast U.S. coast bringing devastating rains to interior portions of the Carolinas and causing significant beach erosion along much of the mid-Atlantic. While Joaquin was not a particularly intense storm, its impacts lasted for several days. Winter storm Jonas, was a completely different type of system. Jonas only lasted a relatively short time, however it intensified rapidly and generated wave heights and storm surges in South Jersey that were larger than those experienced during Sandy. This paper will examine the two systems through the lens of the Storm Erosion Index (SEI). The SEI is an erosion parameter which has been shown to successfully capture the erosion potential of both tropical and extratropical storms. The SEI is a physically based parameter that considers the wave heights, water levels, and the duration of storm events. In the wake of Hurricane Joaquin, the SEI was used to illustrate the severity of the storm in North and South Carolina in a report for the US Army Corps of Engineers. Subsequently, the SEI was applied to the New Jersey coast for the same purpose. In all three cases, the SEI accurately represents the severity of the observed erosion. This paper will report on those results as well as an extension of the analysis to include winter storm Jonas. The Initial results suggest that Jonas’ impacts were not represented well in New Jersey, due to the fact that the offshore waves were propagating nearly parallel to the coast. This and other interesting differences between the storms will be discussed in more detail.
Dr. Miller is a Research Associate Professor of coastal engineering in the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Ocean Engineering at Stevens. Dr. Miller received a Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering from Stevens, before studying under Bob Dean at the University of Florida where he received his Masters and PhD degrees in Coastal Engineering. Dr. Miller’s research focuses on coastal processes and storm impacts as well as living shorelines. In addition to his academic appointment, Dr. Miller also serves as the New Jersey Sea Grant Coastal Processes Specialist and the Assistant Director of the New Jersey Coastal Protection Technical Assistance Service.
PhD Student, George Mason University
Co- authors: Ali Mohammad Rezaie and Celso Ferreira
PhD Student, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Infrastructure Engineering, George Mason University
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Infrastructure Engineering, George Mason University
In the United States (US), coastal states are frequently threatened by flood damages and coastal erosion due to hurricane wind and storm surges. Recent studies indicate that the global financial losses from hurricanes will be doubled by 2100 due to the combined effect of climate change, sea-level rise (SLR), the predicted hurricane intensification due to a warmer climate with more frequent storms and increasing coastal populations. Report by U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) suggested that 2 feet rise in global sea level by 2100 would result about 3 feet rise in relative sea level at Hampton Roads, Virginia. For the Mid-Atlantic region of the US, a recent study by Old Dominion University predicted a 7.2 feet local sea level rise by 2100. Areas near Hampton Roads are likely to experience a 2.3 to 5.3 feet increase with additional land subsidence of between 0.5 and 0.75 feet per century. The predicted SLR for state of Maryland is between 0.9 and 2.1 feet by 2050 and between 2.1 and 5.7 feet by 2100.
The work aims to provide a sense of future flooding scenarios in the coastal regions of Maryland and Virginia. This will mostly focus on implementing storm surge model for the coast of Virginia, Maryland and Chesapeake Bay through generating flood inundation maps due to historic hurricane for current and future sea level rise and climate change projections. To prepare the flood maps widely used state-of-the art coastal hydrodynamic model Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model is applied in this study. Multiple Climate change land cover scenarios (A1, A2, B1, B2) generated by USGS are incorporated in the modeling approach to integrate climate change in the simulation. To incorporate the sea level rise in the modeling approach the maximum and minimum SLR projections (1.6 feet and 7.6 feet) for the end of the century are taken from a recent study by Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS).
From the preliminary results it is found that with about 7.6 feet rise in sea level can cause maximum water elevation going up to 10 – 13 ft. in general. While 0.5m SLR makes the range 3 – 8 ft. in the flood affected areas. It is also seen that higher increase in the sea level not only brings higher range of inundation in the study area but a greater extent of flood as well. In terms of change in land use and land cover due to different climate change emission scenarios results showed that projected inland flooding extent is maximum for the SRES A2 Scenario. Findings from the study will assist in future planning for the coast of Virginia, especially in the Chesapeake Bay regions and finally progressing in developing a climate resilient coast. Keywords: Storm Surge, ADCIRC, Climate Change, Sea Level Rise, Land Cover
I have an undergraduate degree in Water Resources engineering and masters in Water Resources Development. Through my academic and research experience I worked on multiple coastal and ocean numerical models to characterize coastal and estuarine flow dynamics and flooding scenarios; to develop a quasi-real time inundation prediction system for the coast of Bangladesh; and to evaluate the interaction of nearshore circulation with ecosystem resources for a Mediterranean lagoon. Currently I am pursuing my PhD on the capacity of wetlands to attenuate storm surge and waves, and to accurately quantify the benefits of coastal wetland protection on storm surge attenuation in Mid-Atlantic coastal and estuarine communities.
US Army Engineer R&D Center
The Coastal Hazards System (CHS) is a coastal storm-hazard data storage and mining system. It stores comprehensive, high-fidelity, storm-response computer modeling results and measurements for a wide range of responses including climatology, total water levels, surge, tides, waves, currents, rainfall, and ice coverage. Response uncertainty is also stored. The data are easily accessed, mined, plotted, and downloaded through a user-friendly publicly-available web interface. The CHS has been developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) high-fidelity coastal storm data from formalized regional studies such as the FEMA National Flood Insurance Program and the USACE North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study are stored. Modeling results and associated measurements are converted into consistent standards and efficient formats and stored in a centralized system that is relatively easily maintained due to an innovative big-data design. The user-friendly web interface includes a multi-access environment where the user can screen data through a map interface or through a text-based navigation window or some arbitrary combination of the two. The innovative design is intended to avoid lag and thereby prevent efficient access to large data sets. CHS regional data are comprehensive, uniformly spanning the coastal region and practical probability space. As a result of this comprehensive nature, CHS data have been used to develop a high-fidelity, storm-response prediction capability using metamodeling techniques. Long-term goals for the CHS include a comprehensive national coastal storm data resource that spans the entire U.S. coastline and includes comprehensive modeling, measurements, and uncertainty for regional storm climatology as well as information on historical storms. CHS data are intended for use within coastal engineering, planning, and environmental studies. This presentation will focus on the CHS data, what is available and how it can be used.
Dr. Jeffrey Melby is a senior research engineer at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL). Dr. Melby received BS and MS degrees in Civil Engineering from Oregon State University and PhD from University of Delaware. He has over 120 publications and is presently a leader in US Army research in coastal risk analysis, Coastal Hazard System, machine learning, and coastal structure engineering. His professional status includes present member of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Coastal Engineering Research Council and former Chair of the ASCE Coastal Structures Committee.
Davidson Laboratory, Stevens Institute of Technology
From January 22-24, 2016, a major blizzard named Jonas passed through the north east of United Stated producing economic losses estimated between $500 million and $3 billion of dollars and a total of 55 deaths. The storm occurred during El Niño year and caused major coastal flood in southern New Jersey. A mandatory evacuation was ordered for residents in coastal Barnegat Township. Up to 30 inches of snow were measured at the John F. Kennedy International Airport making it an all-time high record of snow accumulation. Major bridges and tunnels were closed and traveling was banned between Newark and NYC during that weekend because of hundreds of snow-related accidents. The northeaster produced a maximum storm surge of 4.3 feet recorded in Atlantic City tide gauge. A wave buoy located 15 nautical miles east of Barnegat Inlet, maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, measured waves of 27 feet. The Coastal Engineering Group from Stevens Institute of Technology collected topographic data pre- and post- storm Jonas in the towns of Point Pleasant, Bay Head, Mantoloking, and Brick. Special attention was taken on the erosion and bar formations at the ends of the rock seawall in Bay Head and the steel seawall in Mantoloking and its transition zone. Later, three post storm recovery topographic surveys were conducted every 2 weeks before beach scraping took place in some of these beach towns.
Marianna Fleming is a Civil Engineering undergraduate student at the Stevens Institute of Technology. She has been working at the Davidson Laboratory since September of 2014 and has been involved in survey data collection, data extraction using AutoCAD, processing and analysis using ArcGIS, and data processing using various other programs. She is interested in pursuing a Masters degree in Ocean Engineering. Her interests include playing rugby, snowboarding, and surfing.
Michael Baker International
Long Beach Island (LBI), New Jersey is a 34km-long developed barrier island with 98 shore-perpendicular groins installed between 1928 and 1969 to limit longshore sediment transport and reduce landward shoreline migration rates (USACE, 1990). Hurricane Sandy made landfall to the south of LBI, near Atlantic City, New Jersey on October 29th, 2012. LBI experienced widespread beach-dune erosion and overwash in response to Hurricane Sandy at locations absent of sufficient beach-dune volumes prior to the storm (Barone et al., 2014). The objective of this study was to determine how a continuous groin field influences beach and dune volume change in response to an extreme storm event along an entire developed barrier island. The research expands on the work presented by McKenna and Barone (2013) by utilizing island-wide LiDAR-derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that represent the coastal topography pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy to determine the beach and dune volume change that occurred in each groin’s zonal analysis area. DEMs were produced by the USGS from first-surface topography datasets collected using second-generation Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL-B). Pre-storm LiDAR data were collected on October 26, 2012 and post-Storm LiDAR data were collected on November 1, 2012. Individual groin analysis areas were delineated as polygons extending from the exposed (pre-storm) groin of interest to the northern and southern adjacent groins. Landward and seaward extents of analysis areas were constrained between the landward dune toe and mean high water (MHW) lines, respectively. Of the 98 groins, length and elevation variables were calculated as independent variables for the 62 pre-storm exposed groins within 62 corresponding analysis areas. Dependent variables calculated from the pre- and post-Sandy DEMs were dune volume change and beach volume change. Using R-statistical software, an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to understand how exposed groin elevation and length influence beach-dune volume change along an entire barrier island. Utilizing pre- and post-storm LiDAR data provides a means to understand the influence of a continuous groin field along an entire barrier island by providing substantially more data on how beach-dune systems respond to individual groins with varying elevations and lengths.
Barone, D.A., McKenna, K.K., Farrell, S.C., 2014. Hurricane Sandy: Beach-dune performance at New Jersey Beach Profile Network sites. Shore Beach 82, 13–23.
Kimberley K. McKenna, Daniel A. Barone, 2013. The influence of groins on shoreline response to Hurricane Sandy: Long Beach Island, Ocean County, New Jersey. Presented at the Northeast Beaches Conference, Northeast Shore and Beach Preservation Association, Galloway, NJ.
USACE, 1990. Appendix B: Existing Coastal Structures, in: New Jersey Shore Protection Study. p. 25.
Mr. Barone serves as the Environmental & Water Resources Department Manager at Michael Baker International’s Hamilton, NJ Office. He holds a bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in Marine Science and Instructional Technology from the Stockton University and is currently a PhD candidate in physical geography at Rutgers University. Mr. Barone has over 11 years of experience with coastal processes, spatial data analysis, remote sensing, and modeling. He also has professional certifications as a Certified Floodplain Manager (CFM) and Geographic Information Systems Professional (GISP).
Session: Beach Restoration and Coastal Structures or Lessons Learned from Sandy. Authors: Daniel A. Barone, GISP, CFM; Michael J. Flynn, PSM, CFM
The City of Long Branch, NJ has expressed interest in utilizing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in their lifeguard operations. The potential applications they foresee are detection of submerged victims, detection of sharks, rip currents or other hazards, communicating with victims and use of UAS in long-range rescue far from shore. The Water Rescue Team monitors 4.3 miles of coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and 2.5 miles along the Branchport Creek. The goals of this research project are to develop a concept of operations (ConOps) for the integration of UAS into their lifesaving operations. We will develop requirements for the UAS based on user needs and expected environmental conditions, identify stakeholders in the system, and determine if this ConOps can be applied to other lifesaving organizations. We will identify if the UAS can have dual purpose for life saving as well as environmental monitoring or will it be more beneficial to have the UAS performing singular tasks and not performing multiple tasks. Other countries like Iran, Chile and Australia have already begun testing UAS for lifesaving operations.
Undergraduate Student at Rutgers University
New York State maintains a coastal setback and special permitting area, the Coastal Erosion Hazard Area (CEHA), to protect natural features and maintain a buffer to reduce storm impacts. CEHA maps dated back 30 years to the inception of the program in the 1980’s. Original delineations were hand-drawn via stereoscope-based interpretation of aerial photography. Coastal erosion, geomorphic changes had outdated the maps in many areas, and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) identified that the outdated mapping necessitated a comprehensive update across New York State.
NYSDEC sought an objective, consistent and repeatable methodology to delineate regulatory features using LiDAR topography. Lower New York State, especially along the Long Island coast, which has a diverse and variable geomorphology encompassing beach and dune systems, bluffs, low-lying barrier islands and hardened coastal reaches. Study methodologies needed to be accurate and return defendable delineations in high profile areas, such as New York City, as well as provide efficiency to maximize available funding. The study area included over 350 miles of coast in New York City, Nassau, Suffolk and Westchester Counties.
The CEHA regulations identify two regulatory areas: natural protective feature areas, which are delineated based on coastal geomorphic features; and the structural hazard area, delineated on shoreline recession rates. Natural protective features, as defined by the regulation include beaches, dunes and bluffs, with each type identified by geomorphic features such as crest and toe locations. To ensure replicability the NYSDEC mandated a transect-based approach utilizing 1-D cross sections. A GIS-integrated process was developed to leverage LiDAR, orthoimagery and geostatistical analysis to identify the regulatory features. The R Statistical Computing software was used to develop a GIS-coupled graphic user interface applying three mathematical indicators including first and second derivatives as well as curvature of the topographic cross-section. The initial area was completed manually and used as a training set to automate feature identification with additional logic. When applied to the following areas, manual review of automated extraction found an overall 60% success rate, with bluff features correctly identified 90% of the time. To date, over 10,000 transects have been evaluated to identify more than 53,000 geomorphic features across the study area.
Delineation of structural hazard areas within the CEHA program is based on areas with shoreline recession rates. Rates were calculated across the study area using visually-interpreted shorelines and a combination of end-point and linear regression shoreline change analysis techniques. The number of shorelines were limited in some areas, thus quality control measures were developed to exclude delineations in areas where short-term deviations from the long-term trend, such as ephemeral features including sand waves biased the change rate.
Our presentation will provide an overview of the CEHA program and the map modernization process for lower New York. Focus areas will include how the challenges of a defendable and efficient delineations were met using a semi-automated geo-statistical approach; quality controls on shoreline change analysis; an overview of shoreline change rates for lower New York State; and lessons learned.
Dr. Brian Batten is a senior coastal scientist and project manager who supports Dewberry’s coastal resilience initiatives. He was more than 18 years of experience and has served as the technical lead for diverse studies concerning coastal flooding, coastal erosion, sea level rise and resilience. Dr. Batten serves as the project manager and technical lead for Coastal Erosion Hazard Mapping efforts in lower New York State.
Brian received a B.S. in Marine Sciences from Coastal Carolina University, a M.S. in Marine Environmental Sciences, and a Ph.D. in Coastal Oceanography from the Marine Sciences Research Center at the State University of New York, Stony Brook.
McKim & Creed
A combination of data collection methods and diverse remote sensing technologies were used to conduct existing condition beach and groin surveys along a four-mile stretch of beach devastated by Hurricane Sandy. By blending conventional, hydrographic and airborne LiDAR techniques, McKim & Creed mapped 145 beach profiles and performed detailed topographic surveys above and below the water surface for 29 stone groins and revetments. This project supports the repair and restoration of the largest beachfill project ever, by volume, and helps USACE return the beaches to their pre-storm condition and restore them to their full, original design level of protection.
In this presentation I will cover the planning, execution and results of the Sea Bright project. I will also show some actual data and a storm surge simulation of the area 3D using Point Cloud data. Included will be an overview of LiDAR technology and its various applications related to the coastal environment.
Maine Coastal Zone Management Program
Maine’s coastline measures more than 5300 mi in length, and while state waters cover approximately 9500 sq mi, the entire Gulf of Maine spans nearly 70,000 sq mi. In order to effectively manage existing marine resources, coordinate potentially competing uses, and increase coastal resiliency in preparation for future events, a comprehensive understanding of the resources and geographic extents of various environments present in the Gulf of Maine is essential. It is infeasible to collect data over such a large expanse without careful coordination and resourceful collaboration among diverse organizations with similar overarching goals. Although historical sidescan and multibeam sonar and seismic profiles collected sparsely throughout state and nearshore-federal waters provide spotty bathymetry and have been used to model surficial sediment composition, there are still large gaps in high resolution bathymetry, and very little is known about sediment composition or benthic habitat throughout the Gulf of Maine. To identify and characterize modeled sandy and gravelly substrate at the mouth of the submerged Kennebec River paleodelta (3-8 nm offshore), the Maine Coastal Mapping Initiative (Maine Coastal Program, Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry) has developed a unique coalition with a local fisherman to map a ~150 sq mi area using a Kongsberg multibeam sonar mounted on a lobster boat. Due to the high density of lobster fishing gear, this smaller vessel and the local captain provide the maneuverability and local knowledge necessary to successfully navigate these crowded waters. Funding from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management for offshore sand investigation has allowed the MCMI to leverage additional support from the Maine Department of Marine Resources and the Submerged Lands Program to map nearshore scallop habitat areas and mooring fields, respectively, for improved management and planning. Furthermore, a Ponar dredge is used to collect benthic sediments in both offshore and nearshore areas to ground truth the backscatter intensity data and analyze benthic infauna, which, when paired with an underwater video camera and water column profiles, are used to characterize biological communities to aid benthic habitat classification. All together, these data will dramatically enhance the capacity for coastal resiliency, ocean planning, and resource management in the Gulf of Maine. In this presentation, we will highlight the advantages and challenges associated with this unique partnership, and we will present results from the Midcoast survey to illustrate the strengths of this collaborative project.
Matt Nixon is the Assistant Director of the Maine Coastal Zone Management Program and Principle Investigator for the Maine Coastal Mapping Initiative. He has an MS in Marine Policy and Law from the University of Rhode Island, an MS in Public Policy and Management from the University of Southern Maine and is currently working on his Doctorate in Oceanography at the University of Maine. Matt works on a wide variety of projects ranging from municipal technical assistance to coastal public access to seafloor mapping and oceanographic data collection.
Second Presenting Author – Kerby Dobbs, Hydrographer, Maine Coastal Zone Management Program.
Stony Brook University
The New York State Department of State in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management is identifying and assessing marine sand deposits offshore of New York’s ocean shoreline. Offshore sand resources are used to rebuild beaches and dunes and maintain coastal habitats in the wake of storm events, including Superstorm Sandy (October, 2012). Not only is the vulnerability of coastal communities of intense societal attention, but the use of marine aggregate for coastal resilience must fit into a diverse framework of spatial planning that includes traditional uses, such as commercial fishing, as well as new factors such as the siting of offshore wind turbines. The historical demand for beach nourishment has been about 1.5 million cubic meters per year, but with the occurrence of extreme conditions and predictions of sea-level rise, forecasts of future demand might increase to over 5 million cubic meters annually. Forty-four historical and proposed borrow sites have been delineated in New York State waters, and federal agencies are now seeking to identify potential borrow areas in federal waters. Extensive geophysical and geological data has been compiled and reassessed to support identification, characterization, and delineation of sand resources to meet future demand. Previously excavated borrow areas were apparent in the most recent surveys and it appears that morphological changes have been occurring after dredging, perhaps with a change in substrate from sand to mud. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management had collected approximately 700 km of new geophysical survey lines located between 3 and 8 nautical miles offshore, and 46 geotechnical samples, comprised of a combination of grab samples and vibracores, during a 2015 research cruise off the New York coast as part of the Atlantic Sand Assessment Project. Investigators at Stony Brook University will be using these new data in the next stage of this project to test prior interpretations of sediment distribution and physical processes on the shelf. In addition, wave modeling (SWAN) has been performed over the study area to provide further insight into the oceanographic changes wrought by the excavation of marine sand. Four hypothetical borrow areas in federal waters at water depths of 15 m to about 30m (50 to 98 ft) were modeled (between Long Beach and Westhampton). At all four areas, changes in wave refraction were calculated to be weak, the impacts on significant wave height were small, and wave breaking occurred in State waters farther inshore. As a result, only minor impacts on longshore sand transport and its divergence were apparent. Research will continue to address questions surrounding coastal processes and sand transport. The State remains concerned about mechanisms of offshore-onshore and longshore sand transport, preserving natural patterns of sand flow for supplying inshore areas, and studying these features and habitats.
Wilhelmina Innes is the Ocean & Great Lakes Policy Analyst, for the Office of Planning and Development, New York Department of State.
Henry Bokuniewicz, Roger Flood and Robert Wilson are Professors of Oceanography and Mr. Lashley is a graduate research assistant all at the School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences of Stony Brook University.
Co-authors: Wilhelmina Innes, Henry Bokuniewicz, Roger Flood, Robert Wilson, Justin Lashley, and Barry Pendergrass
1New York State Department of State, Office of Planning and Development, 99 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12231
2School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-5000 USA.
University of Rhode Island/Professor
A geological and geophysical mapping effort was undertaken by the University of Rhode Island between August 2014 and July 2016 in an effort to identify sand and gravel deposits on the Rhode Island Outer Continental Shelf that could be used as sediment borrow areas for beach replenishment. Emphasis was placed on examining the area between 3 – 8 nautical miles (nm) offshore, however State waters (0-3 nm offshore) were also studied to further the understanding of the sedimentary environments associated with potential sand and gravel resources. Identification of a potential borrow area were based on: 1) a literature and database review for existing geological and geophysical data in the area of interest, and the conversion/compilation of these data into ArcGIS-compatible geodatabases (included in digital format with the final technical report); 2) newly-collected data resulting from geophysical (bathymetry, sidescan sonar, subbottom sonar) and geological (vibracore) surveys in the area of interest which, based on interpretation of data collected in phase 1, appeared to be a potential target for sand and gravel resources; and 3) interpretation of all compiled and collected data from Phases 1 and 2, and development of ArcGIS maps indicating the geographic location of potential sediment borrow areas.
Preliminary analysis of newly-collected geophysical data suggests that the target area may contain significant sand resources associated with glacial deltaic deposits. 3. To replenish the developed portions of the south coast (assuming 21 km of length) to a volume/configuration based on the New Jersey design from the Mantoloking area (+300 m3 m-1) requires approximately 6,300,000 m3 (8,200,000 yd3) of sand. Preliminary analysis of subbottom profiles in the target area, suggests that at least 50,000,000 m3 of sand is available in the glacial delta depositional environment. Additional subbottom surveys of this area using a narrower trackline spacing, as well as vibracore data, will be collected during the summer 2016 in order to refine the location of potential sand resources, and to determine if the glacial-deltaic sand deposit is of high enough quality sand to represent an adequate borrow site for the south coast of Rhode Island.
King has been a professor at the Graduate School of Oceanography at URI since 1984. He obtained his PhD in Geology from the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities in 1983. His research interests include paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental studies, habitat and other types of mapping, marine pollution studies, studies to facilitate offshore alternative energy development, and studies to monitor sea level rise and associated coastal impacts.
In the years following Superstorm Sandy, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Coastal Management Program (NJCMP) and an extensive group of partners have assisted communities’ transition from recovery to long-term planning, with resilience to coastal hazards at the heart of these initiatives. Through these initiatives, these partners have provided:
This session will highlight the outcomes of these efforts, share implementation stories of how communities are integrating resiliency planning into their local plans and polices, and the ongoing activities of the diverse group of partners to coordinate resiliency of New Jersey’s communities through planning and nature-based projects. The session will specifically address:
Tony MacDonald (moderator) is the Director of the Monmouth University Urban Coast Institute (UCI).
Nicholas Angarone, PP/AICP is the resiliency planning project manager for the NJDEP Coastal Management Program, Office of Coastal & Land Use Planning.
Patty Doerr, is the director of Coastal and Marine Programs at The Nature Conservancy in New Jersey.
Elizabeth Semple is the Manager of the NJDEP Coastal Management Program, Office of Coastal & Land Use Planning.
David M. Kutner, PP/AICP is New Jersey Future’s Planning Manager and administrator of programs providing direct municipal assistance for Sandy recovery.