Poster Title: Beach Profile Changes Before and After Hurricane Isaias at Kure Beach, North Carolina
Presenter: Chelsea Abell
University of North Carolina Wilmington
Co-authors: Andrew Davey, Ryan Mieras
Abstract: Hurricane Isaias was a Category 1 storm as it struck the southern North Carolina coast around 11:00 PM EDT on Monday, August 3, 2020 near Ocean Isle, NC. The project area covered in this poster is Kure Beach, NC, which is roughly 43 miles north of where Hurricane Isaias made landfall. Kure Beach is a mesotidal, east-facing barrier island beach that is about 16 miles south of Wrightsville Beach, NC. Because it is an east-facing beach, located northeast of the landfall location, Kure Beach was in the northeast quadrant of the storm and was subject to several hours of shore-perpendicular winds. The nearby tide gauge at Wrightsville Beach recorded two to three feet of storm surge, with maximum peak wind gusts over 80 mph. High tide at Kure Beach was at 8:10 PM EDT on August 3. Based on footage from a rapid deploy storm surge observation camera that was installed on Kure Beach Pier, Kure Beach was fully inundated with total water levels reaching the dune toe for several hours. This poster describes the beach profile evolution at multiple cross-shore transects, using a custom built real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) survey cart, before and after the Hurricane Isaias. The preliminary analysis shows three to four feet of vertical erosion of the berm crest. Ongoing beach profiles will be collected at Kure Beach throughout fall 2020 to track the beach recovery and continuing morphodynamic variations.
Presenter Bio: Chelsea Abell is a Coastal Engineering undergraduate student at the University of North Carolina Wilmington.
Poster Title: Assessing coastal highway vulnerability on a barrier island
Presenter: Mr Adam Behr
NC State University
Co-authors: Elizabeth Sciaudone
Abstract: Coastal highways are important evacuation infrastructure for barrier island communities. Because of a coastal highway’s proximity to the ocean and sound, it is especially susceptible to impacts such as flooding, dune overwash, erosion of the pavement, and damage due to breaching of the island. Existing studies funded by NC Department of Transportation (NCDOT) have used island width, dune crest height above the road, and distance from the road edge of pavement to the ocean shoreline as indicators of the highway’s vulnerability to current and future short and long-term impacts from storms and erosion. In the NCDOT studies, these indicators were computed on a cross-shore transect basis and compared to threshold values to determine along which transects the highway was vulnerable. The first objective of the research to be presented in this poster was to evaluate the performance of these binary indicators in predicting vulnerability to storm impacts from a data set of 8 storms with documented roadway impacts. The second objective of this research was to explore development of an empirical, linear function of simple, morphologic indicators that could assess the vulnerability at each highway transect. Results from the evaluation showed that the distance from the edge of pavement to the ocean shoreline was the most skilled predictor of vulnerability. A weighted linear function of dune crest height and distance from edge of pavement to ocean shoreline was found to be the most successful vulnerability function.
Presenter Bio: Adam Behr is from Prattville, AL. He received his undergraduate degree in Biosystems Engineering from Auburn University in Spring of 2019. Now, he is a first year Master’s student studying Coastal Engineering at NC State University.
Poster Title: Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Marsh Habitat Creation on the Mississippi Gulf Coast
Presenter: Mr John Bourgeois
Allen Engineering and Science
Co-authors: Dr Melissa Pringle
Abstract: The program included the assessment, planning, and design of containment berms in sensitive environments to restore coastal marsh habitat through the placement of dredge material. The projects included marsh restoration at the mouth of the Wolf River in St. Louis Bay and North Beardslee Lake near the Pascagoula River. The projects included containment berm design including stability and settlement analysis, consideration of wind/waves on the survivability of the projects, hydraulic design of weirs, erosion control design, and construction document development.
Presenter Bio: Mr. Bourgeois serves as Director of Engineering and Chief Operations Officer for Allen Engineering and Science. Over his 30+ year career, John has served as Project and Program Manager for a wide array of green infrastructure, marsh and stream bank habit creation and preservation, living shoreline, civil sitework, structural, utility, drainage, transportation and environmental projects.
Poster Title: Outer Continental Shelf sediment distribution and dynamics: A summary of the present state of knowledge
Presenter: Nicholas Brown
Florida Atlantic University
Co-authors: Tiffany Roberts Briggs
Abstract: The US Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) consists of sediment that spans a wide range of sizes and composition as a result of previous sea levels and ongoing oceanographic processes. The OCS is also a sediment source for the common practice of beach nourishment or restoration in an effort to mitigate erosion, increase coastal resilience to storm impacts, provide habitat, and support the economy. Sediment placed on the beach is often required by state regulations to closely match the native grain size distribution and composition. Thus, understanding the nature and distribution of OCS sediment is also important in cost consideration of obtaining sediment for beach nourishment projects. This study examines the present state-of-knowledge on the availability, distribution, and characteristics of the sediment on the OCS under normal conditions, after storms, and post-dredging. Under normal conditions sediment in deltas and sand ridges are easily located and characterized as potential borrow sites. Storms can induce enough sediment transport to change the boundaries of borrow areas and the location of known sand ridges. Once dredged, OCS dynamics can include sediment infilling of the dredge pit and impact benthic infauna depending on the geometry and nearshore proximity of the excavation. The results of this study will also identify gaps in the present knowledge and identify research needs to further the scientific and coastal management community’s knowledge of OCS sediments and dynamics.
Presenter Bio: Nick is a geologist at Florida Atlantic University studying the morphodynamics of a local beach and nearshore system. His research evaluated topobathymetry and sediment transport before, during, and after dredging and beach nourishment construction and compares those conditions to blacktop shark aggregation and sea turtle nesting behavior.
Poster Title: Performance Evaluation of Subdomain Modeling Extension for ADCIRC for Storm Surge Modeling
Presenter: Dr Fatima Bukhari
US Army Corps of Engineers – Engineering Research & Development Center
Co-authors: T. Chris Massey, John Baugh
Abstract: Numerical storm surge models, such as the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) Model, have widespread applications in assessing the vulnerability of coastal systems and infrastructure to coastal hazards such as hurricane storm surge, wind waves, and tides. While capable of producing highly accurate simulations, substantive demands on computational resources are characteristic of these models. This demand on computational resources occurs due to the scale of coastal process and the complex nature of ocean physics, the burden on computational resources is further exacerbated when evaluating a variety of engineering design scenarios.
Baugh et al. (2015) address this issue of computational cost by developing an approach to storm surge simulation called subdomain modeling that allows local changes in subdomains to be accommodated with less computational effort than would be required by running a full domain with equivalent changes. Since subdomain modeling operates on smaller domains using boundary conditions from full domains, subdomain solutions are low in cost with respect to computational time and storage space. Simulations on subdomains can be performed, producing the same results that would be obtained by their equivalent full simulations, so long as the hydrodynamic effects from any changes made to a subdomain remain local and do not propagate to the boundaries. Subdomain modeling differs from traditional nesting techniques in that it is used to reduce the computational time of multi-scenario simulations rather than to reduce the time required to perform a single simulation.
While subdomain modeling to be mathematically equivalent to ADCIRC full domain solutions through informal proofs (Baugh et al., 2015), it is originally designed to allow for only minor local modifications and not necessarily more considerable modifications characteristic of real-world studies. This study tests the performance of the subdomain modeling approach for meshes with more substantial spatial refinements and modifications involved in the evaluation of practical coastal engineering design alternatives being considered for construction. The performance of subdomain modeling is assessed both for its computational benefit and solution quality as compared to full domain simulations and their solutions. We determine whether and to what extent hydrodynamic effects remain local in subdomains, subsequent to mesh refinements and modifications; how sensitive subdomain solutions are to boundary locality and placement; and how spatial mesh refinements for real world scenarios affect boundary conditions for subdomains when combined with variations in project configurations. Results show that subdomain modeling provides computational savings of at least 30 percent and produces solutions within model tolerance levels.
Presenter Bio: Fatima received her BS in Civil engineering from the University of Alaska Anchorage. Subsequently, she began her career with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an Environmental Engineer and worked in the industry for several years before pursuing her MS in Civil Engineering from State University New York at Buffalo. This year she completed her PhD in civil engineering at North Carolina State University.
Poster Title: Using XBeach to simulate future impacts of a living shoreline project in Little Lagoon, Alabama.
Presenter: Miss Kelsey Carpenter
University of South Alabama
Co-authors: Kelsey Carpenter, Bret Webb
Abstract: Little Lagoon is a shallow body of water located west of Gulf Shores, Alabama, and an erosion analysis has exhibited that some areas of the southwestern shoreline have been eroding since 1992. A living shoreline project is underway to mitigate this erosion by protecting habitat on the contiguous land of the Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge by creating a staggered system of riprap sills with plantings and backfilling. This research will focus on comparing a “with project” and “without” project condition using XBeach in a 1-dimensional, transect-based mode extending into the future. This will be done in a probabilistic framework using Monte Carlo simulation techniques also including sea level rise effects. This poster presentation will describe the study area, project attributes, modeling and analysis framework, and the expected research outcomes. Once completed, this research will provide practitioners with a useful application for designing and implementing living shorelines.
Presenter Bio: Kelsey Carpenter is a graduate research assistant in the Department of Civil, Coastal, and Environmental engineering at the University of South Alabama under Dr. Bret Webb. Her research investigates the impacts of natural shoreline stabilization. Kelsey received her Bachelor of Science degree in Biology with a concentration in marine science from USA in 2018 and is currently studying to receive her Master of Science in Civil Engineering with an emphasis in coastal engineering.
Poster Title: Swash zone bed level variations using the new standalone Conductivity Concentration Profiler (CCP+) system
Presenter: Mr Andrew Davey
University of North Carolina Wilmington
Co-authors: Chelsea Abell, Ryan Mieras, Charles Key
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Kure Beach, NC in order to better understand small-scale sediment transport processes in the swash zone. The experiment was conducted on the foreshore spanning one tide cycle on a reflective beach (slope of 1:6). A pair of standalone Conductivity Concentration Profilers (CCP+) were installed on two rapid-deployable, pier-mounted deployment rigs that were strapped and tensioned to the Kure Beach ocean fishing pier, spaced 5 m apart in the cross-shore. The CCP+ measures sediment concentration profiles in the sheet flow layer and tracks the instantaneous bed level at 8 Hz over a 3 cm vertical range. This study marked the first field deployment of the CCP+ system in the swash zone. The breaking waves in the inner-surf and swash zones were of the collapsing/surging type. The sensors at the landward site were inundated for about 6 hours while the station more seaward was inundated for roughly 8 hours. Communication with the CCP+ sensors was achieved with a Raspberry Pi 3B+ configured as a router and DHCP server, enabling remote control of the CCP+ system and live access to data via remote desktop. Periodic bed level fluctuations on the order of several centimeters were observed at time scales ranging from 5 to 15 minutes. Smaller-scale intra-swash bed level fluctuations on the order of 1 to 2 cm were also observed. Ultimately, the CCP+ system will allow for more accurate predictions of sediment transport and beach morphology on barrier islands.
Presenter Bio: My name is Drew Davey and I’m an undergraduate studying Coastal Engineering at UNCW. I grew up near the Outer Banks and I have spent the past few years living on a sailboat I restored and navigating North Carolina’s waterways. This has given me a first-hand look into our constantly changing coast. I have spent this summer conducting research with Dr. Ryan Mieras in UNCW’s Coastal Sediments and Hydrodynamics Laboratory (CSHL). I chose this career path because it will give me the opportunity to study coastal morphology and make a contribution to the protection of our coasts.
Poster Title: Analyzing the New Jersey Wave Climate in Effort to Improve Coastal Management Decisions
Presenter: Miss Audrey Fanning
Stevens Institute of Technology
Co-authors: Jon Miller
Abstract: The natural erosion of the New Jersey coastline costs the state and surrounding coastal communities billions of dollars in replenishment efforts. By understanding the trends in the changing New Jersey wave climate, leaders will be better equipped to protect and preserve the coastline from damage and erosion. Aspects of wave climate such as wave height, wave steepness and wave breaker type were examined. Additionally, a 95th percentile wave threshold storm analysis was conducted to identify number of storms, number of stormy hours and storm duration. Annual and seasonal plots consisting of these categories were used to identify potential trends. Larger wave steepness values along with larger counts of threshold defined storms were identified in the winter months. This indicates higher rates of erosion and coastal damage in the winter. Contrastingly, smaller wave steepness values and counts of threshold defined storms were identified in the summer months indicating shoreline rehabilitation. The New Jersey coastline experiences higher rates of erosion than accretion leading to the overall decay of the coastline. Moreover, annual plots in the averages of wave steepness and upper percentile wave height (extreme wave heights) showed increasing trends. These annual increases may be an effect of climate change and rising sea levels. Rising wave heights paired with growing wave steepness values indicate a higher risk for coastline erosion and damage. Wave breaker type is also an important factor for local leaders to consider when planning beach renourishment. Breaker type is influenced by beach slope. In New Jersey, beach slopes range from 1:10 on the steeper Northern beaches to 1:60 on the flater Southern beaches. A higher percentage of plunging breakers, the ideal surfing waves, is estimated to occur on steeper beaches while a little to no plunging breakers occur on the flatter beaches. Steeper beach slopes also tend to create surging and collapsing breakers. Plunging and spilling breakers can encourage tourism through safer swimming and surfing conditions while surging and collapsing breakers can potentially cause serious injury to swimmers due to their harsh breaking style. When deciding on protective coastline measures, all aspects of wave climate should be considered in effort to create a safe environment for both beachgoers and the coastline. Understanding the wave climate can lead to the creation of a more resilient and efficient New Jersey coastline.
Presenter Bio: Audrey Fanning is a junior Mechanical Engineering major at Stevens Institute of Technology planning on pursuing a further degree in either Coastal or Sustainable Engineering after completing her undergraduate degree in the spring of 2022. Over the summer of 2020, she worked with the Coastal Engineering team at Stevens to study the wave climate of the New Jersey coastline. Additionally, Audrey is the captain of the Women’s Varsity Swim Team at Stevens.
Poster Title: Forecasting Arctic Shoreline Change at Point Hope, Alaska
Presenter: Mr Kristopher Ford
Co-authors: Ruth Carter, Ronald McPherson
Abstract: Point Hope, or Tikeraq, peninsula is one of the oldest occupied Inupiat areas in Alaska. Various settlements in the area have been occupied for over 2,500 years. Residents are dependent on marine mammal subsistence. There is a strong whaling history and culture. The community of Point Hope or Tikiġaq (One that Resembles an Index Finger) is located on a triangular coastal geomorphic feature called a cuspate bar, is comprised of gravel, extending westward on the Seward Peninsula; this forms the western-most extension of the northwest Alaska coast. The cuspate is eroding on the northern face and accreting on the south. Lines or ribs, visible in aerial images, reflect historic shorelines; local lore describes each rib as representing 100 years.As a result of accelerated erosion rates, the runway is at risk to suffering imminent damage. Historically, the runway was realigned for protection against shoreline change. The most at-risk asset for the new runway is the northern section. To mitigate shoreline change, the local village uses earth-moving equipment (front end loaders) to build artificial coastal berms (beach scrapping). Beach scrapping has been an effective coastal protection. Currently, the coastline is located approximately 50 meters away from the northern section of the runway. The purpose of this coastal erosion study is to determine the projected shoreline retreat that will affect the runway.
Presenter Bio: Kristopher Ford is a Graduate Coastal Engineering with the HDR Alaska section. He received his undergraduate degree in Civil Engineering from New Mexico Tech and his masters of science in Civil Engineering from University of Alaska Anchorage. Kristopher developed a geomorphic change model for Utqaiagvik, Alaska to forecast future storm events and their impacts on the coastline with consideration to climate change. Kristopher assisted in a shoreline protection study for Oliktok Point, Alaska.
Poster Title: Coastal Vulnerability for Sanibel and Captiva
Presenter: Andrew Gross
Florida Gulf Coast University
Co-authors: Felix Jose, Michael Savarese
Abstract: Sanibel and Captiva are two barrier islands that harbor communities and serve to protect Pine Island Sound, the Caloosahatchee estuary, and the more populated municipalities of Lee and Charlotte Counties. Consequently, an analysis of their vulnerability to climate-change induced sea-level rise and increased storminess are critical to their future comprehensive planning. In this study, a vulnerability analysis of Sanibel and Captiva Islands has begun with a documentation of the recent history of coastal geomorphologic change along the gulf side. Resilience of the dunes, beaches, and strand plain features were inferred by analyzing LiDAR data since 1998. Also, sectors of the beach that are susceptible to chronic erosion were identified by a sand budget study.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for Sanibel and Captiva were generated using LIDAR data extracted through NOAA Data Access Viewer (https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer/#/) for 5 years: 1998, 2004 (post Hurricane Charley), 2004 (post Hurricane Ivan), 2006 (post Hurricane Wilma, which only exists for Captiva), 2010, and 2015. Each DEM was subdivided into 3 sections: Captiva, North Sanibel, and South Sanibel. Furthermore, elevation difference maps were created from years 2010 to 2015. All of the DEMs, except 1998, had high enough resolution to extract beach profiles. Profiles were generated corresponding to the R-monuments R-84 to R-174 (Florida DEP), which run along the coast of Captiva and Sanibel at 1000-foot intervals.
Beach and nearshore sediment budgets, calculated using the software package SANDS, were used to evaluate the long-term evolution of the foredunes, strand plains, and beaches between 2004 and 2015. Beach profiles extracted from the DEMs (post-Charley 2004, post-Ivan 2004, 2006 [Captiva only], 2010, and 2015) were separated into the following event-based intervals of time to calculate the sediment budgets for those atmospheric events: post-Charley 2004 to post-Ivan 2004, post-Ivan 2004 to 2006 (Captiva only), post-Ivan 2004 to 2010 (Sanibel only), 2006 to 2010 (Captiva only), and 2010 to 2015. Further, for the ease of analysis, profiles were grouped into 10 sections having a length of ~ 10,000 feet and running from north to south. Coastal vulnerability maps were produced to evaluate the magnitude of erosion or deposition for each given time interval between each R-monument. Critical erosion hotspots were identified (see Figure 1) with their spatial and temporal variability. The critically eroding section of the beach was located just south of the Blind Pass, which separates Sanibel and Captiva Islands (see Figure 1).
In order to determine the relative importance of wave energy convergence and divergence on the coastal geomorphology of the island, a MIKE 21 flexible mesh wave model is being implemented for the study area. As the wintertime wave climate is very critical for the beach erosion and cumulative long-shore sediment transport, our model study is focused on passage of cold fronts in the region.
Presenter Bio: Andrew Gross is a recent graduate at Florida Gulf Coast University. He received his Bachelors in Marine Science with a minor in Geology and plans to continue his education in FGCU’s MS Environmental Science program. During his undergraduate years at FGCU, he’s worked with Dr. Felix Jose and Dr. Michael Savarese on various coastal vulnerability projects including Keewaydin and Marco Island in Collier County. He was born and raised on the beaches of Fort Lauderdale, Florida where he found his passion for the beaches and coastal areas.
Poster Title: Quantifying the effect of recreational versus protective beach value on community-scale beach nourishment decisions
Presenter: Mr Arye Janoff
Montclair State University
Co-authors: Jorge Lorenzo Trueba, Di Jin, Porter Hoagland
Abstract: Coastal communities facing erosion maintain their beaches for recreation and property protection. One form of maintenance is nourishment, the placement of externally sourced sand to increase cross-shore beach width, forming an ephemeral seaward protrusion that requires periodic re-nourishment. Nourishment projects add value to beachfront properties, thus affecting future management choices through feedbacks between nourishment decisions and the benefits provided to coastal communities. We compiled data on nourishment projects from the ASBPA and Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines databases to quantify community-scale nourishment fluxes in New Jersey. We also collected economic data including property assessment values and beach utility revenues from municipal budgets and audits, which we interpret as proxies for the beach’s protective and recreational values, respectively. In general, we expect that the higher a community’s beachfront property value, the more frequently and extensively the community would nourish the beach to protect its properties. Analyzing nourishment fluxes as a function of beachfront property value suggests a negative relationship, however, whereby wealthier communities choose smaller nourishment fluxes than less wealthy communities. Interestingly, we also find that the average beach revenue density (i.e., revenue per square meter of beach) is higher for lower-wealth communities than for wealthier communities, suggesting that the recreational value of the beach is inversely related to beachfront property values. Combined, this suggests that, for low-wealth communities, beach recreational value exerts greater control over nourishment fluxes, which contrasts with the expectation that property values are the primary determinant of nourishment management decisions. This also indicates that the economic benefits of beach recreation in tourism-dominated communities along the densely populated coast of New Jersey are integral to the analysis of how management policies are formed. As sea-level rises and material costs increase, beach maintenance may become more difficult over the long-term, and recreation-centric communities may respond with different nourishment approaches to maintain their tourism economies compared to the management responses in their property-value-protective neighbors.
Presenter Bio: Arye Janoff is a Ph.D. Candidate in Environmental Science and Management at Montclair State University and a member of the MSU Coastal Dynamics Lab. He studies how coastal communities make beach nourishment and groin construction decisions based on their socioeconomics, emphasis on beach recreation, and underlying geomorphic conditions. The NSF Dynamics of Coupled Natural-Human systems program funds this work. Arye is also the Secretary of the Bradley Beach Environmental Commission, volunteered on the Bradley Beach Oceanfront Development Task Force, and is a NOAA Sea Grant 2021 Knauss Fellowship finalist to be placed in a Legislative host office on Capitol Hill.
Poster Title: Living shorelines Puget Sound style: Removing armor and reestablishing natural beaches and marshes
Presenter: Mr Jim Johannessen
Coastal Geologic Services, Inc.
Co-authors: Jim Johannessen, Wei Chen, Lauren Ode-Giles
Abstract: Shore armor is present along approximately one-third of shores in the greater Puget Sound region, and much of the armor is in gradually failing condition. When functioning as nature intended, Salish Sea shores provide vital foraging, refuge, and rearing habitat for juvenile salmonids and many other species. Negative impacts of shore armor include direct burial of the beach backshore and/or portions of intertidal beaches and marshes, altered wave and sediment transport dynamics, and reduced sediment input from feeder bluffs that is needed to sustain down-drift beaches and spits/estuaries. Scores of armor removal and coastal restoration projects have been completed in recent years. This poster will highlight project concepts, design approaches, and project elements from across the Puget Sound/Southern Salish Sea region featuring armor removal and Living Shorelines principles.
The poster briefly describes case studies showing a range of living shoreline projects. Living shoreline projects in this region often include salt marsh elements, but due to the moderate wave energy of the majority of the shores in the region, can also often rely on gravel beach nourishment, the use of large wood, and a variety of backshore and marine riparian vegetation planting approaches. Successful project examples, partnerships between non-profit organizations, and an informed and engaged public will help perpetuate progress toward recovering coastal systems and nearshore ecosystems in the Salish Sea. Coastal Geologic Services has been involved in each stage (identification, prioritization, assessment, feasibility, design, construction oversight, and monitoring) for over 60 shore armor removal and coastal restoration projects. Across the Puget Sound, these projects are happening at an increased rate, with momentum established through the US EPA, state Salmon Recovery Funding Board, and other funding sources, as well as funding provided by landowners. Featured projects include those on park sites, State-owned shores, homeowner’s association community areas, and at individual parcels. One highlighted project is the largest beach restoration project in the Puget Sound region along 1.5 miles of Birch Bay’s shore. The project is aimed at flood and damage mitigation, improved beach access, and habitat enhancement. Project construction began in January 2020 and will be finished late in the year.
Presenter Bio: Jim is the owner and principal coastal geologist at Coastal Geologic Services, Inc. in Bellingham, WA. Jim specializes in beach and estuarine assessment, mapping, and restoration design. He has performed coastal assessments and developed beach nourishment, soft shore protection, integrated site management approaches, restoration, and other designs from initial concept to final construction in all Salish Sea counties. Jim serves as a regional expert for Sound-wide studies and runs educational programs throughout the region to facilitate community understanding of coastal processes and interactions of coastal modifications and nearshore habitats.
Poster Title: Identifying Microplastic Abundances and Hotspots in the Guana, Tolomato, and Matanzas Rivers in Northeast Florida
Presenter: Miss McKenna Keplinger
University of Central Florida
Co-authors: Dr. Linda Walters, Casey Craig
Abstract: Plastic never fully disappears, but instead breaks into smaller pieces referred to as microplastics (≤ 5 mm length). Microplastics have been found in populated and remote locations around the globe. Current research has shown that microplastics may contain chemicals and other pollutants which can accumulate in the food chain. This is important since the biological and toxicological effects of ingesting these plastics are not fully understood. Researchers are trying to better understand where microplastics are accumulating and identify sources and sinks. The goal of this project is to identify microplastic abundances and hotspots in the Guana, Tolomato, and Matanzas (GTM) Rivers in northeast Florida. Water samples were collected from surface waters at nine sites across the GTM river system, with three sites per river. Five replicate water samples were collected at each site in 1 L bottles. Samples were then vacuum-filtered and analyzed under a stereo microscope (40X). The duration of this project extends from January 2020 to March 2020. Samples will be collected monthly, at the beginning of each month. The project is on-going and preliminary results show that more microplastics are accumulating in the the northern rivers (Guana and Tolomato). It is hoped that the results of this project will help bring awareness of plastic pollution to resource managers and the community.
Presenter Bio: McKenna Keplinger is an undergraduate researcher at the University of Central Florida pursuing a Bachelor’s degree in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. She works in the Coastal and Estuarine Ecology Lab (CEELAB) under Dr. Linda Walters, studying microplastic pollution and assisting with other lab projects. Her research interests include living shoreline stabilization, microplastic pollution in coastal waters and sediment, sustainable habitats, planet habitability, and renewable energy sources. Outside of research she volunteers with community outreach and education and is a member of the university athletic bands.
Poster Title: Understanding The Relationship Between Artificial Berm-Dune Construction and Coastal Property Values: A Hedonic Case Study from Long Beach Island, New Jersey
Presenter: Mr Jesse Kolodin
Montclair State University – Sustainability Program
Co-authors: Jorge Lorenzo-Trueba, Porter Hoagland, Di Jin
Abstract: In the years following Superstorm Sandy, New Jersey constructed large-scale artificial berm-dune structures to mitigate future storm-related damages to residential properties and its coastal tourism industry. The specific design for berm-dune construction followed the FEMA “540-rule,” with berm-dunes built in excess of ~7m tall. Initial implementation costs were covered by the federal Sandy Recovery Act, and construction was carried out by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The project envisioned that seven periodic renourishment episodes would be necessary to maintain the berm-dune over a 50-year period. However, under the standard cost-share breakdown between federal, state and local governments, it is unclear whether local beachfront communities would be capable of continuing to contribute their shares over the 50-year project life. Estimating the benefits to local property owners from this protection strategy, which would be important for financial planning for coastal protection in these communities, provides a particular challenge.
This study examines the relationship between 540-rule berm-dune construction and the relevant benefits to local property owners in three beachfront communities located along the ~18mile barrier island complex of Long Beach Island, New Jersey (Ship Bottom, Long Beach Township, and Beach Haven). Analysis of time series (2015-2019) of community residential property values revealed that a significant value increase occurred immediately after the berm-dune installation in 2017. A hedonic pricing model was specified to estimate potential variations in property values in response to dune geometry and other property characteristics. The constructed berm-dune was associated with increases in coastal property values of 10.9% (Ship Bottom), 1.3% (Long Beach Township), and 20.7% (Beach Haven). Across these three communities, the project was associated with an increase in 6.37% in property values. Over the 50-year project’s time-horizon, the average Long Beach Island property would realize a gain in a present asset value of $55,776 (Ship Bottom: $1,383/yr; Long Beach Township: $154/yr; and Beach Haven: $3,953/yr).
While the hedonic model results confirmed that beachfront communities would be notionally capable of maintaining their 12.5% share of berm-dune renourishment costs due to the increased asset values of coastal properties, the feasibility of maintenance over the long-term could be affected by factors such as accelerating sea-level, increasing frequency and severity of tropical cyclones or Nor’easters, and the growing costs of supplying material used to renourish the berm-dune. Publicly available data for Long Beach Island revealed increasing average rates of nourishment costs (starting at ~$21/m3 in 2016, increasing on average $2.38/m^3/yr) and material requirements (starting at 2,000,000m^3 in 2016, increasing on average ~128,000m^3/yr) over the past 65 years (1955-2019). Fortunately, if these trends were to continue over the 50-year project lifetime, model results revealed that the communities of Ship Bottom and Beach Haven would be able to continue to contribute their shares of renourishment costs over the entire 50-year period. Unfortunately, after only a decade, Long Beach Township would be incapable of continuing to contribute its share (i.e., its aggregate nourishment costs would exceed its aggregate coastal protection benefits, as revealed through the market for coastal properties).
Presenter Bio: Jesse Kolodin is a PhD candidate in the Environmental Science and Management program at Montclair State University in New Jersey. His research focuses on the development of geo-economic models for coastline evolution that account for interplay between natural processes and human activities. In particular, Jesse has worked on quantifying the long-term benefits received from artificial dune implementation. Additionally, Jesse is interested in the application of UAV technology to quantify geomorphic changes of berm-dune systems and other coastal environment. Outside of research, Jesse is an adjunct professor at two universities in New Jersey.
Poster Title: Implementation of a coupled circulation + parametric wave model to improve run-time efficiencies for ensemble modeling.
Presenter: Mr Caleb Lodge
Florida Institute of Technology
Co-authors: Sam Boyd, Dr. Robert Weaver
Abstract: The goal of this study is to improve run-time efficiency of coupled circulation + wave models by substituting a parametric wave solver in place of a third generation wave model for predicting waves in coastal estuaries. Using meteorological and water level data passed from ADCIRC, along with pre-calculated fetch distances and depths, the parametric wave solver calculates wave heights and radiation stresses that are then passed back to ADCIRC in a tightly coupled system, ADCIRC+PARAM. Implementation of the parametric wave solver in the high-resolution coastal estuarine portion of the model domain results in an 80% reduction in coupled model run-times in initial testing. Results obtained by replacing a third generation wave model with a parametric solver in the coastal estuaries, ADCIRC+PARAM, agree with the standard ADCIRC+SWAN solution for wave heights and water levels. Multiple test cases examining longer simulations forced with historical winds and tides are being modeled to quantify discrepancies between ADCIRC+SWAN and ADCIRC+PARAM coupled systems. Further output from the ensuing models will also be analyzed to highlight differences in other wave parameters, such as wave period and radiation stresses. The improvements in run-time efficiency will allow for more meteorological members to be added to ensemble modeling of water levels and waves, while keeping to the real-time requirements for forecasting and guidance.
Presenter Bio: Caleb Lodge is a first-year graduate student at Florida Tech, studying for an M.S. in Ocean Engineering. In the final year of undergraduate studies at Florida tech, he began aiding Dr. Robert Weaver in research modeling coastal and ocean basins. Caleb’s work is largely related to ADCIRC-based models of the Indian River Lagoon tidal estuary, and validation of those models utilizing ADCP sensors.
Poster Title: Geologic Evidence of Hurricane Irma in a Southwest Florida Back-Barrier Lagoonal Site
Presenter: Ms Tynisha Martin
University of South Florida, College of Marine Science
Co-authors: Joanne Muller
Abstract: On September 10, 2017 Category 3 Hurricane Irma made landfall along the Southwest Florida coastline between Cape Sable and Cape Romano. Geologic evidence of this storm is apparent in a back-barrier lagoon behind the Big Hickory Barrier Island, which is located approximately 64 km north of Irma’s landfall point and is positioned 43-65 m east of the Gulf of Mexico. Modern dune height is approximately 0.83-0.88 m, which was exceeded by Irma’s storm surge (recorded height 0.9-1.5 m) allowing for sediment deposition in the Big Hickory Island Lagoon. Geologic evidence is likely found at this location due to the site’s proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the shallow barrier itself. We took and analyzed several cores for percent moisture, percent inorganic material, grain size, and foraminiferal assemblages. The presence of a hurricane signature or “tempestite” is evident in the uppermost sediments of all the cores and includes a fining upward signature of medium sand to clay against a background of organics and fine-grained sediments. Tempestite layers were thicker behind narrower sections of the beach, indicating easier back barrier deposition behind narrow beach sections. Several different foraminiferal species within the tempestite sediments further indicate a marine sediment origin. In addition to the core results, historic satellite imagery demonstrates that the Big Hickory Island Barrier is very susceptible to geomorphological change through time, especially due to storm impacts. This research demonstrates the utility of back barrier sediment cores in understanding hurricane history and barrier island vulnerability.
Presenter Bio: Tynisha is currently seeking a Master of Science degree at the University of South Florida College of Marine Science. Her concentration is Geological Oceanography. She is interested in carbon cycling, paleotempestology, and coastal geology. In her spare time she enjoys going to the beach and hanging out with her family.
Poster Title: An Overview of ERDC’s Coastal Storm Modeling System as Applied to the South Atlantic Coastal Study
Presenter: Dr Chris Massey
US Army Corps of Engineers
Co-authors: Margaret Owensby, Amanda Tritinger, Leigh Provost
Abstract: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center’s Coastal Storm Modeling System (CSTORM-MS) is a system of highly-skilled, highly-resolved numerical models used to simulate coastal storms within a comprehensive application methodology to accurately assess water levels and wave height hazards to coastal communities. The CSTORM-MS makes use of nonlinear physics-based models that are integrated into a suite of high-fidelity storm modeling tools to support a wide range of coastal engineering needs for simulating tropical and extratropical storm winds, waves, and water levels and for representing the coastal hydrodynamic response due to the storms. The CSTORM-MS has been applied to several large-scale USACE projects including the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (2015), the Coastal Texas Protection and Restoration Study (2018) and now the South Atlantic Coastal Study (SACS). This poster describes in broad terms how CSTORM was applied for the SACS. Details of the three different modeling domains and their associated storm suite and sea level change scenarios are provided. A discussion on how the resulting data sets can be used for additional purposes in the engineering and planning communities will be included.
Presenter Bio: Dr. Massey serves as a Research Mathematician at the US Army Corps of Engineers at the Engineering Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulic Laboratory since 2008. He is a recognized expert in the development and application of coastal and riverine numerical models, model coupling and system integration, and storm surge modeling. Dr. Massey is currently leading the continued development of the Coastal Storm Modeling System; collaborating on the development of a next generation unstructured wave model; and working with an interdisciplinary team to develop compound flood modeling capabilities. He is also leading the CHL numerical technology modernization program.
Poster Title: Mitigating Climate Threats to Coastal Dunes: Can Plant Community Composition Determine the Success of a Restoration?
Presenter: Ms Shannon Matzke
Georgia Southern University
Abstract: Tybee Island, Georgia has begun large-scale dune reconstruction along its beaches; however, no studies have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of this restoration. I am conducting a study to experimentally evaluate the results of four different restoration treatments, focusing on the most effective revegetation methods for the desired outcomes- sand accumulation and stability. The objective of this study is to assess how well the current dune projects restore ecological function to degraded coastal areas. I will determine this by testing the following hypotheses: 1) Species composition will influence dune building and stabilization, and 2) Planting density will influence vegetation growth.
At the completion of dune reconstruction in March 2020, I established two planting assemblages in high and low densities across the newly constructed dune. Assemblage 1 applies the planting design created by the City of Tybee for the restored dunes. Assemblage 2 mimics conditions in pre-existing Tybee dunes, taking into account dune vegetation studies and functional roles of each species. These treatments are being compared with each other, unvegetated sites on the constructed dune, and a pre-existing dune to establish best practices supporting optimal plant growth and maximum sand binding capacity for maintaining dune elevation. Change in dune morphology is being analyzed utilizing a Riegl VZ-1000 terrestrial laser scanner (LiDAR) and using a Trimble R8 RTK-GPS system to georeference LiDAR data.
Four periods of sampling have been completed as of October 2020. Measurements include vegetation height, density, and species along with change in sand height.
Presenter Bio: Shannon Matzke, a master’s student studying biology at Georgia Southern University, is conducting research on dune vegetation on Tybee Island, Georgia. This research will help determine the effectiveness of Tybee Island’s large-scale dune reconstruction project at restoring degraded coastal areas to proper ecological function.
Poster Title: An accessible, low- cost UAV- based monitoring tool for assessing nature- based adaptation efforts
Presenter: Ms Maile McCann
University of Southern California Sea Grant
Abstract: A low- cost aerial image based quantitative assessment tool for nature- based adaptation projects is created to routinely and accurately measure open- coast topography, nearshore bathymetry, and vegetation cover via an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Natural shoreline infrastructure can effectively preserve coastal ecosystems, maintain beach access, and support a healthy sediment budget while simultaneously acting as a natural barrier against sea level rise and extreme events. Previously, nature- based adaptation projects have struggled in implementing a robust, quantitative post- monitoring system due to constraints on budget, manpower, and accessibility. A UAV can estimate open- coast topography and nearshore bathymetry using Structure from Motion (SfM) and wave speed inversion algorithms, while simultaneously quantifying vegetation cover. This empowers coastal managers to implement robust data collection practices to survey, plan, and post- monitor a nature- based adaptation project with the goals of 1) retaining and accruing sediment, 2) increasing the growth of native vegetation, and 3) attenuating wave energy. With this framework, projects can collect regularly sampled data over long timeframes, capturing seasonal response, effects of short- timescale extreme events, sediment budgets, and beach sand volumes, without sacrificing accuracy. Two case studies are utilized, in Sea Bright, New Jersey, and Malibu, California, where passive and active dune restoration projects are ongoing, respectively. The cost of a DJI Phantom 3, the UAV utilized for data collection, is currently $1,299, and requires only one operator and less than 30 minutes of flight time per data set, which captures real- time topography, bathymetry, and vegetation. Dry beach topography is estimated using the Structure from Motion technique; UAV-based SfM has been shown to be within 0.05 m [root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.19 m] when compared to terrestrial LIDAR observations. Bathymetry is estimated using wave- speed inversion algorithm, the cBathy algorithm, which utilizes shallow water wave theory to calculate water depth from an optical time series. The cBathy algorithm is shown to have a bias and root‐mean‐square (RMSE) error of 0.19 and 0.51 m, respectively. Vegetation cover can similarly be quantified using SfM, and allows for effective data collection without human interference in areas where an ecosystem is rehabilitating. These methods are combined into one open source graphical user interface to make implementation of these monitoring practices accessible to non- engineers and scientists. Overall, this can increase accessibility of nature- based adaptation projects and improve data collection in order to inform future implementations.
Presenter Bio: Maile McCann is a second- year PhD student at University of Southern California studying Coastal Engineering under the advisement of Dr. Patrick Lynett. Maile’s interests lie in studying resilience to sea level rise, coastal flooding, and extreme events, utilizing computational modeling and remote sensing technologies.
Poster Title: Observing the Change in Wave Energy Over Dauphin Island, AL During Hurricane Nate
Presenter: Mr Sean McQuagge
University of South Alabama
Co-authors: Bret Webb
Abstract: Extreme events, such as hurricanes and tropical storms, can create significant change in the topography of a barrier island. Previous studies compared cross-shore elevations measured before and after storms, and some have measured nearshore wave forcing during storms. Research is lacking, however, in measuring the energy associated with island-overtopping waves during the storm and determining how these waves affect island morphodynamics. Here we show the change in wave energy density at various points across Dauphin Island, Alabama during Hurricane Nate (2017). Pressure sensors were placed along two cross-shore transects of Dauphin Island and used to estimate time-varying water levels and waves during the storm event. Data from these sensors were first filtered to separate waves from the storm tide hydrograph, and then filtered again to distinguish the gravity and infragravity wave components. A fast Fourier transform was applied in order to find the energy spectra at each sensor location, which allowed us to observe the change in cross-shore and alongshore wave energy over the duration of the hurricane. Determining the change in wave energy during extreme events will help us to better understand the relationship between hydrodynamic forcing and barrier island morphodynamic response, as well as the selective dissipation of wave energy during overtopping events.
Presenter Bio: Sean McQuagge is a graduate research assistant in the Department of Civil, Coastal, and Environmental Engineering at the University of South Alabama under Dr. Bret Webb. His research studies the morphodynamic response of barrier islands to hydrodynamic forcing caused by extreme events such as hurricanes and tropical storms. Sean received his Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Florida in 2017 and is studying to receive his Master of Science in Civil Engineering with an emphasis in coastal engineering.
Poster Title: Accuracy of Wave Attenuation Modeling of Natural and Nature-Based Features at Local to Regional Scales
Presenter: Mr Tyler Miesse
George Mason University
Co-authors: Tyler Miesse, Felicio Cassalho, Celso Ferreira
Abstract: Coastal communities, especially along the mid-Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, are at a high risk of damages due to impacts from waves and storm surge during extreme events, which can be aggravated under sea level rise conditions. In the last decade, natural and nature-based features (NNBF) have gained popularity as a mean to mitigate such coastal hazards. Yet our understanding of the specific risk reduction functions of NNBF is still limited, making it challenging to compare their benefits to more traditional coastal resilience approaches, such as seawalls and embankments. Some of the difficulties in understanding NNBF flood defense functions are derived from the fact that each site has unique vegetation and topography/bathymetry characteristics, thus hampering the extrapolation of local NNBF studies from one site to a larger region. However, by extrapolating to a regional scale, communities would be able to make decisions about whether to implement NNBF over traditional coastal resilience approaches. Studies that have evaluated NNBF potential to attenuate waves by implementing numerical models rely on two different formulations to accurately represent the wave dissipation by NNBF: (1) bottom friction based on the National Landcover Dataset and National Wetlands Inventory; or (2) vegetation characteristics (e.g. height, density, and diameter). In order to provide guidance on extrapolating local NNBF studies to a regional scale we investigated different wave dissipation formulations comparing local and a regional scale numerical models, developed for the project During Nearshore Event Experiment (DUNEX). In addition, we also implemented a nearshore numerical model, XBeach, for our local field sites along with the coupled hydrodynamic and nearshore wave model, ADCIRC-SWAN, for the regional southern mid-Atlantic. We then compared the models’ wave heights at the field sites for different measured Hurricane events using either the implicit (wave dissipation by friction), or explicit (wave dissipation by vegetation) approaches. Both the local and regional scale models were able to accurately recreate the observed dissipation rates, with the implicit approach significantly underperforming by 40% when compared to the explicit approach. Comparing the results of the local to the regional scale models show that the accuracy of the explicit approach increases based on the resolution, resulting in the local scale model outperforming the regional scale. Results show that the regional scale model can provide preliminary information on the potential of NNBF to attenuate waves, which can aid decision makers regarding whether to implement more NNBF alternatives over traditional coastal resilience approaches.
Presenter Bio: Tyler Miesse is a full-time PhD student at George Mason University in the Civil, Infrastructure, and Environmental Engineering Department, focused in coastal engineering. He has experience working as a coastal engineer and is now working as a graduate research assistant in the Mason’s Flood Hazards Research lab.
Poster Title: The Influence of Storm Characteristics on Surge and Wave Impacts for a Proposed Coastal Storm Risk Management Measure for the Galveston Bay Area
Presenter: Ms Margaret Owensby
Co-authors: Amanda Tritinger, Leigh Provost, Chris Massey
Abstract: The Galveston Bay area has a storied history as the site of landfall of numerous major tropical storm events. Comparisons of storm surge and wave impacts in the region have shown that storm characteristics including size, intensity, forward speed, and most notably, angle of approach have an appreciable influence on hydrodynamic processes and behavior in the Galveston Bay during a significant storm event. However, an extensive examination of the impacts of these storm parameters on local surge and nearshore waves has not been conducted heretofore. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center’s Coastal Storm Modeling System (CSTORM-MS) was applied along the Texas coast to examine storm surge and wave behavior for 660 synthetic tropical storms, as well as the hydrodynamic impacts due to proposed coastal storm risk management measures and sea level rise scenarios. One proposed storm protection design, known as the “Coastal Spine,” is comprised primarily of a system of levees and navigation gates at the entrance of the Galveston Bay and along the shoreline of the Bolivar Peninsula and Galveston Island. This poster will present an analysis of the effects of various storm characteristics on surge and wave properties considering both with and without the proposed storm risk management system. Water level and wave height results for representative storm scenarios at a present day sea level will be shown and compared. Time series showing water levels at various locations inside the Bay will be presented to demonstrate the disparate timing and duration of flooding within the Bay caused by different storms. This discussion will illustrate not only the inherent complexity of the storm protection system’s impacts on hydrodynamics in the Galveston Bay, but will also suggest that operational procedures for the protection system may be equally complex.
Presenter Bio: Ms. Margaret Owensby is a research hydraulic engineer with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at the Engineer Research and Development Center in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Since joining the Corps of Engineers in 2016, she has specialized in coastal modeling and data analysis, and has worked on a variety of projects to aid decision-making for both government and military agencies. She is a member of the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory’s Coastal Storm (CSTORM) Modeling System team, which uses a coupled numerical model to simulate both historical and hypothetical hurricane conditions in coastal regions.
Poster Title: Sedimentology Influence on Beach Substrate Temperatures
Presenter: Ms Jyothirmayi Palaparthi
Florida Atlantic University
Co-authors: Tiffany Roberts Briggs
Abstract: Florida beaches are important economic resources and are also home to thousands of nesting sea turtles every year. Beach-dune systems are periodically restored (beach nourishment) to mitigate erosion, enhance coastal habitat, protect from storms, and attract tourism. We hypothesize that different borrow sources with slight variability in their characteristics could affect temperatures within the placed sediment. Temperatures encountered during egg incubation will determine the gender of the sea turtle hatchlings but can also exceed a critical threshold resulting in embryonic mortality. Given the current trend of global warming, it will be critical to ensure shore protection projects use appropriate sediment to avoid adversely impacting habitat function. This study evaluates the sediment characteristics from nine location in Jupiter beach, FL. Characteristics evaluated includes grain size, sorting, color, and carbonate content at two depths (mimicking average sea turtle chamber depths). Sediment characteristics were then compared to corresponding temperatures at the two depths. Beaches with both a large mean grain size (>0.67 mm) and high carbonate content (coupled due to the shell fraction) (>75 %) had higher measured temperatures (>84 °F). The results of this study are important to determine sediment suitability characteristics that will promote a healthy beach ecosystem.
Presenter Bio: I am Jyothirmayi Palaparthi, 2nd year PhD student in Florida Atlantic University working with Dr. Tiffany Roberts Briggs. My research includes evaluating the role of post-nourishment sediment properties on temperature and morphology change and the potential influences on sea turtle nesting habitat.
Poster Title: The impact of living shorelines to adjacent nearshore habitats
Presenter: Dr Cindy Palinkas
University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science
Co-authors: Lorie Staver, Miles Bolton
Abstract: Shorelines in Chesapeake Bay, like many other estuaries and coastal embayments, are rapidly eroding, with even more rapid loss expected in the future from drivers like urbanization and accelerated relative sea-level rise (RSLR). Shoreline erosion not only increases sediment input into adjacent waters, degrading water quality, but also results in property loss. In response, many property owners seek to protect their shorelines with stabilization structures. Recent efforts have focused on “soft” infrastructure, including living shorelines – narrow marsh fringes with or without additional structures. Living shorelines are encouraged by legislation in many states, including Maryland and Virginia, and provide similar ecosystem services as natural marshes (e.g. sediment and nutrient retention, wave attenuation). But, questions remain regarding the resilience of living shorelines to environmental change, especially in regions like the Chesapeake where relatively rapid rates of RSLR and declining sediment supplies have led to widespread marsh loss, and their long-term effectiveness in reducing shoreline erosion. Questions also remain regarding their potential impacts to adjacent waters, especially habitat for benthic organisms like submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV), which are keystone species in the Chesapeake. This study addresses these questions through field observations in living shorelines from ~3-10 years of age, as well as adjacent SAV habitat, with the ultimate goal of assessing how sediment-vegetation interactions in the created marshes impacts sediment supply to adjacent waters to help inform shoreline-management decisions.
Presenter Bio: Cindy Palinkas is an Associate Professor at the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. Her research focuses on the transfer and fate of terrestrial sediment in aquatic environments; its alteration via land use and/or shoreline stabilization; and its interaction with plants in subtidal and intertidal habitats. She has evaluated the impacts of various shoreline-stabilization techniques (rip rap, breakwaters, living shorelines) to SAV habitat in adjacent waters., currently focusing on the effectiveness and sustainability of living shorelines with the goal of informing coastal management in an era of climate change, especially regarding engineered versus nature-based options.
Poster Title: Methodology for Assessing Maximum Allowable Capacity on New Jersey Beaches due to the COVID-19 Pandemic and Social Distancing Guidelines
Presenter: Miss Olivia Panko
Stevens Institute of Technology
Co-authors: Caitlin Carroll, Jon Miller, Matthew Janssen
Abstract: The COVID-19 outbreak in the United States has caused unprecedented social and economic changes across the country. By March 2020, social distancing and other measures were instituted in New Jersey due to almost 190,000 cases and 16,000 deaths from COVID-19 to limit the spread of the virus (“Cases in the U.S.”, 2020). These guidelines included wearing face masks, stay-at-home orders limiting people at gatherings, and remaining six feet apart, which all proved to be effective. With warmer weather and Memorial Day weekend beach crowds, proper restrictions are necessary at NJ beaches to ensure a healthy environment. Travel and tourism at the Jersey shore is a crucial aspect of the state’s economy, and therefore it is important to determine what is a safe number of people for each NJ beach.
New Jersey beaches were given their own specific set of social distancing rules to limit the spread of COVID-19 while still allowing locals and tourists to enjoy the beaches. In order for towns to enforce these guidelines, the number of beach badges, a significant source of revenue for beachfront municipalities in NJ, were limited and, in some locations, grids were marked off to ensure proper distancing between individuals or small, related groups of people. To understand the financial impact of social distancing and to advise on the number of badges to be made available to season pass holders and for daily badge use, it was clear a methodology was needed for estimating the number of socially-distanced people a beach could hold.
A methodology for estimating the maximum number of socially distanced beach-goers for a NJ beach was created that could be used by individual municipalities to make decisions on how to manage beach access effectively while assuring the health and safety of beach users. Through the use of Google Earth images and a tool in Google Earth Pro called the polygon tool, it was possible to define the shoreline and measure the usable area of each New Jersey beach. Calculations are then used to determine different viable limitation methods to define the safest number of people for each beach, providing peace of mind to Jersey beach towns and beach-goers. After the summer season, NJ beach badge sale information will be collected and compared to the estimated beach capacity. Due to the requirements of beach badges on every New Jersey beach, the number of actual beach visits can be determined fairly accurately and is therefore pertinent regarding research on COVID-19’s impact on NJ beaches.
“Cases in the U.S.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, 19 August 2020, www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cases-in-us.html.
Presenter Bio: Olivia Panko is a sophomore Mechanical Engineering student at Stevens Institute of Technology. She worked this summer with Coastal Engineering professor, Dr. Jon Miller, on projects involving coronavirus impact on NJ beaches and worked with wave data from the Coastal Hazards System. Olivia is also involved on Stevens campus by playing on the Women’s Varsity Soccer team and by being a member of Theta Phi Alpha sorority.
Caitlin Carroll is a sophomore at Stevens Institute of Technology studying Engineering. She worked alongside Dr. Miller on projects involving coronavirus impact on NJ beaches and living shorelines. Caitlin is a member of the Women’s Soccer team.
Poster Title: Creation of Living Shorelines on the Mississippi Gulf Coast
Presenter: Mr Will Pentecost
Allen Engineering & Science
Co-authors: John Bourgeois
Abstract: The project included the assessment, planning, and design to improve the resilience against seaward erosion of a stretch of Front Beach in Ocean Springs, MS through a natural system of erosion control measures supplemented with engineered technology.
Presenter Bio: Mr. Pentecost serves as a Senior Engineer for Allen Engineering and Science. His project experience includes coastal design, stormwater drainage, green infrastructure design, utility infrastructure design, hydraulic and hydrologic design, horizontal and vertical roadway alignment, aviation infrastructure and site development. Will works with Project Engineers, Scientists and Contractors to ensure that projects are designed and completed in a responsible, safe, timely manner while maintaining customer satisfaction.
Poster Title: Positive Impact of Covid 19 Pandemic on Mumbai Coastline, a Photographic Illustration
Presenter: Miss Maya Pillai
B.D Somani International IB School
Abstract: India consumes 16.5 million tons of plastic every year of which 80% is discarded without processing choking the landfills and drains eventually disposed into the sea. Mumbai itself generates 1000 tons of waste daily of which approximately 10% is plastic. Mumbai is a coastal city naturally gifted with four beautiful beaches. Unfortunately, every monsoon these beaches become a spectacle of garbage and plastic, which is duly returned by the ocean and dumped into the beaches making it unusable and creating a huge health hazard. On one particular day in 2019, 200 tons of garbage was collected from the beaches in Mumbai. The city had banned single use plastic but this could not be implemented due to the population size. The coronavirus pandemic affected the city in March 2020 and Mumbai went under world’s most stringent lockdown with 24 hours’ curfew, bringing all economic activities to standstill. The city is still under a partial lockdown. Miraculously, this year (July 2020) there has been almost nil garbage returned from the choppy Arabian sea and after decades a generation could witness a natural pristine coastline. The purpose of this poster is to photographically compare two successive years to highlight the impact of human activities on the marine pollution and how nature could devise a way (unfortunately a pandemic) to retrieve itself
Presenter Bio: Maya Pillai
Academic Qualification: Student, Eleventh Grade, B D Somani International School, Mumbai India
E mail: email@example.com
Aspiration: Public health and Environment sciences
1.Comparison of Miyawaki Method of afforestation with traditional method: North American Conference for conservational Biology, July 2020, Virtual
2 Converting a Miyawaki forest into a Sacred Grove: North American College for conservational Biology, July 2020, Virtual
3 Building an artificial reef from egg shell waste from a school nutrition program, International Conference for Sustainable development, Rome, September 2020, Virtual
Hobby: Scuba diving and free diving.
1.Youngest girl from India to get certified as Master Scuba Diver by PADI
2.Youngest Indian to get SSI level 2 certification in free Diving
Poster Title: Swash Zone Berm Nourishment Morphodynamics in a Physical Model”.
Presenter: Miss Maro Pontiki
University of Delaware
Co-authors: Hailey Bond, Rachel Innocenti, Jack Puleo
Abstract: Sand berms exist as a prominent elevated feature near the mean water line on many natural and nourished beaches. They are impacted by increased wave forcing and rapidly changing water levels during a storm and may help mitigate erosion of the backshore. The intra-storm assessment of berm damage is essential for the prediction of the evolution of the coastal system. Previous studies have relied on the concept of beach equilibrium profiles and the pattern matching between pre- and post-storm beach topographies to examine the berm deformation. In this study, we conducted fifteen tests in a large wave flume to explore the response of the berm of a near-prototype nourished beach profile to irregular erosive wave conditions. An overhead laser line scanner measured the run-up levels and the subaerial morphological changes. High temporal and spatial resolution measurements were collected at three sensor stations located across the berm. Instantaneous electrical conductivities obtained with conductivity concentration profilers over profiles of 29 mm, were used as a proxy for sediment concentrations near the bed and inside the sheet flow layer. Optical backscatter sensors were used to measure suspended sediment concentrations. The concentration records were collocated with near-bed velocity collected with acoustic Doppler profiling velocimeters. Free surface elevations were quantified with ultrasonic distance meters and wave gauges. We calculated the sheet layer sediment transport rates as the depth-integrated product of flow velocities and sheet flow sediment concentrations. The results suggest that the variations in sediment concentration near the bed and inside the sheet layer followed the changes in the wave train quasi-instantaneously. The sheet layer thickness diminished during flow reversal whereas it was enhanced under the crest phases during which the estimated sheet flow sediment transport rates were between 0.45 – 0.6 m2/m/s. Finally, intermittent accretion between the stations, the significance of bed slope changes on sediment transport, and the generation of a sandbar farther offshore are discussed. This study provides novel insights into the sheet flow layer and the suspended sediment fluxes during berm erosion.
Presenter Bio: Maro Pontiki, earned her bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering from the Aristotle University, Greece, in 2014. Her undergraduate studies were accompanied by exciting research into coastal erosion of Mediterranean beaches, field measurements and numerical modelling. In 2016, she continued her studies in coastal engineering at both TU Delft and NTNU and in 2018 she obtained master’s degrees from both universities. Her passion for experimental research made her pursue doctoral studies at the Center for Applied Coastal Research, University of Delaware. Her research is now focused on the investigation of dune erosion under extreme wave and surge conditions.
Poster Title: QMRA of L.A. Coastal Waters
Presenter: Mr Nicholas S L Poon
Co-authors: Linda Y Tseng
Abstract: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are a measure of water quality. These indicators are monitored regularly in recreational waters to protect human health because they are positively correlated with the prevalence of gastrointestinal illness (GI).
The goal of the research was to determine the dry weather GI risk among surfers and swimmers near the FIB monitoring stations in Redondo Beach, Hermosa Beach, and Manhattan Beach in Los Angeles County between 2009 and 2010. The data obtained from FIB monitoring stations collected samples at least once or twice a week for enterococcus, total coliform, and fecal coliform by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works.
We first obtained the weather data from the National Centers for Environmental Information (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA) to determine the precipitation events during 2009-2010. If there was no data recorded or the precipitation was greater than 0 in the daily precipitation data, conservatively we treated the day as if it had precipitation. We assumed that a precipitation event would impact the coastal water quality up to 72 hours, so we also counted the following 3 days after the precipitation event as precipitation-impacted. We then eliminated the precipitation-impacted days from the FIB data set.
To calculate the risk of GI, we chose a model distribution that best fits each of the FIB indicators. This was done by narrowing potential distributions manually based on the distribution shape. To pick the best distribution for each indicator, we calculated the geometric mean of the original data and compared it to the geometric mean of each distribution curve. After plotting all the results into tables, it was determined the best fit for all FIB indicators was a lognormal distribution.
We calculated the ingestion dose by multiplying the ingestion volume model for swimmers or surfers by the FIB concentration model. This was done by randomly sampling 10,000 points from the lognormal distribution curve of each FIB and multiplying each point to a point from 10,000 randomly sampled points from the ingestion volume curve. The ingestion volume of surfers follows a lognormal distribution (mean = 3.54 ml d-1 and standard deviation = 1.80 ml d-1), while model for swimmers followed a triangular distribution (minimum, mode, and maximum of 20, 35, and 50 mL hr-1) and the exposure time followed a Rayleigh distribution (mean 0.97 h).
Quantitative microbial risk assessment was performed using the modified Cabelli dose-response equation for fecal coliform and the exponential dose-response developed by Haas for enterococcus.
Our results show that recreational surfers were generally at a higher risk compared to recreational swimmers. In addition, our results also suggest that recreational swimmers and surfers were at higher risk of contracting GI in coastal waters around stations near storm drain outlets.
We also evaluated the frequency of exceeding EPA’s estimated illness rate regulation and FIB concentration regulation at each station. We found the EPA regulation using FIB concentration was more protective than using the GI risk.
Presenter Bio: Nicholas Poon is a third-year Physics undergrad student at Colgate University from Hong Kong. He is currently on track to complete a dual-degree in Physics and Mechanical Engineering.
Poster Title: Scour around Aging Concrete Infrastructure during an Extreme Storm
Presenter: Mr Jack Popelka
Virginia Polytechnic Institute State University
Co-authors: Nina Stark
Abstract: An acoustic Nortek Scour Monitor was deployed on a 3-meter diameter concrete pile in the nearshore zone in Duck, North Carolina, USA, during a three-week period in October of 2019 in the framework of the During Nearshore Event Experiment (Dunex) pilot. The observed pile is located at a mean water level of 6 meters. The device collected changes in seabed elevation via four acoustic beams on the west side of the pile where effects of scouring were expected. The scour monitor took a measurement every three minutes for 21 days starting October 3, 2019 and ending on October 24, 2019. During this period, Tropical Storm Melissa produced significant waves (3 meters) during a four-day period (October 9th – October 13th). A goal of this preliminary study was to assess the performance of the device in energetic nearshore conditions (here focused on wave height). Wave height and water levels were measured close to the investigated pile by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility buoy. The seabed elevation changes suggested a significant correlation between wave height and scour depth, being most prominent during Tropical Storm Melissa. During the four days of the storm, a scour hole developed with a vertical depth of 1.5 meters from the original seabed at a distance 1.25 meters away from the pile. The same scour hole initiated by the tropical storm was infilled within 20 hours after achieving the peak scour depth. This scour hole infill coincided with a decrease in significant wave height from 3 meters to 1 meters. This preliminary study indicates that coastal geomorphology and coastal sediment transport are still highly active near older and aging infrastructure in the nearshore zone. A follow-on measurement campaign was planned for 2020, but was postponed to 2021 in response to COVID-19. Nevertheless, the collected data set enables further analysis of backscatter intensity and more detailed sediment characterization that will be pursued while additional field work is still suspended.
Presenter Bio: A master’s student in Geotechnical Engineering with a degree in Civil Engineering researching in the field of Coastal Engineering. The research is emphasized in scour particularly using a scour monitor in nearshore, energetic environments. Further research is being conducted on backscatter intensity and sediment characterization in regards to the scour monitor.
Poster Title: Local-Scale Variability of Morphology Change from Hurricane Isaias
Presenter: Mr Michael Priddy
Florida Atlantic University
Co-authors: Nicholas Brown, Tiffany Roberts Briggs
Abstract: Tropical storms and hurricanes can impact beach morphology at variable spatiotemporal scales, even within the same region. Hurricane Isaias [ess-ah-EE-ahs], skirted the eastern Florida seaboard, briefly dropping to a tropical storm before re-strengthening to a Saffir-Simpson Category 1 hurricane. Pre- and post-storm morphology change were evaluated using time-series beach profiles measured using Real-Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK GPS). The Sallenger Scale Impact from Hurricane Isaias was visually noted (based on the location of the wrack line) as swash to collision regime; however, measured profiles indicated only change within a swash regime. The most storm-erosion measured was in northern Palm Beach County whereas the south county beaches experienced minimal or no sediment loss. Adjacent to a wave-exposed seawall, a scarp and more than 10 m of shoreline retreat with 1.5 m elevation loss was measured. Beaches south of hard structures such as jetties impounded sediment resulting in overall accretion. Rapid post-storm recovery morphology was measured at a few locations with a subtle ridge and runnel at the shoreline. At those locations, slight aggradation of the ridge was measured two weeks post-Isaias. In addition, a ridge and runnel were measured two weeks post-Isaias at a number of locations where it wasn’t apparent immediately post-storm. At locations where Isaias produced scarps or scarp retreat, no recovery was measured two weeks post-storm. With the frequency and intensity of storms increasing in recent years, understanding local-scale variability in storm impacts will help coastal managers better plan for more resilient and healthy beaches.
Presenter Bio: Michael Priddy is a graduate student geologist at Florida Atlantic University studying the morphodynamics of a local beach and nearshore system.
Poster Title: Developing a Site Suitability Model to Prioritize Living Shoreline Project Locations in Santa Monica Bay
Presenter: Jazmin Quezada
Coastal Research Institute
Co-authors: Melodie Grubbs, Karina Johnston, John Dorsey
Abstract: Nature-based solutions to protect and preserve shorelines are cost-effective, sustainable, and provide a myriad of ecosystem services in comparison to traditional barriers such as seawalls and jetties that have been shown to impact beaches negatively. Four living shoreline and coastal dune restoration projects in the Santa Monica Bay region are being implemented by The Bay Foundation to improve resilience to sea-level rise (SLR) and coastal storm erosion. The goal of this project was to develop a GIS-based, regional site suitability model (SSM) to identify and prioritize areas for beach and dune restoration that maximize benefits to the coastline and ultimately create a transferable model for other coastal regions. The first step was utilizing a scientific panel to identify potential variables across categories such as ecological or socio-economic services, physical or climatic factors, and management or economic concerns.
Subsequently, a pilot SSM was conducted that prioritized three of the variables:
Preliminary results indicated vulnerable coastal locations (e.g., Hermosa Beach Pier, portions of Venice Beach) are also adjacent to critical infrastructure for tourism, recreation, commercial areas, and residences, and provide some ecological function. Additionally, the results of the SSM matched the locations of the existing and planned living shoreline projects led by The Bay Foundation. Other priority areas identified included critical habitat for the federally threatened western snowy plover, Charadrius nivosus. Potential variables to be added to the SSM include critical or commercial structures, beach grooming and local coastal plans, beach topography, invasive vegetation and critical habitat for species of concern, etc. Next steps include developing two agency-specific SSMs based on priorities identified by two major coastal land managers in the Los Angeles region, Los Angeles County Department of Beaches and Harbors and California Department of Parks and Recreation. The SSM could be a vital tool for beach managers and coastal municipalities to prioritize restoration sites in the form of living shorelines along Santa Monica Bay’s beaches, and can be adapted for use in other coastal settings.
Presenter Bio: Jazmin Quezada is a first-generation college student who received her B.S. in Environmental Science from Loyola Marymount University in 2020. She has been interning with The Bay Foundation since January 2019 and is a research assistant with the Coastal Research Institute at LMU. Her undergraduate senior capstone project looked at developing a methodology using GIS to identify and prioritize areas for beach and dune restoration. Jazmin is currently pursuing her M.S. in Environmental Management at the University of San Francisco.
Poster Title: Analysis of Wind and Storm Surge from Hurricane Florence using ADCIRC
Presenter: John Ratcliff
University of North Carolina Institute of Marine Sciences
Co-authors: Rick Luettich, Brian Blanton, Taylor Asher
Abstract: The landfall of Hurricane Florence in September of 2018 provided a unique opportunity to analyze the resultant storm surge in the low-lying Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Multiple characteristics separate Florence from other hurricanes affecting the North Carolina coast. Namely, the slow forward speed which created record precipitation accumulation, and the atypical, nearly shore-perpendicular approach for a mid-Atlantic landfalling tropical cyclone. This environment produced storm surge upwards of 3 meters and exacerbated flood levels throughout the river basins of southeastern North Carolina. We have engaged in a deep analysis of the storm surge impacts and the capability of the ADCIRC coastal circulation and storm surge model to accurately represent both wind and water surface elevation observations. Meteorological forcing to the model was provided by 3 separate products for comparison. Two reanalysis datasets were utilized- one from Ocean Weather Inc. and the other, ERA5, which is derived from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. In addition, ADCIRC’s internal tropical cyclone model provided forcing based on ATCF Best Track data from the National Hurricane Center. Because storm surge results primarily from wind stress on water, modelling the 10-meter horizontal wind as accurately as possible is essential. A significant challenge arises from the need to represent the effects of land roughness on the winds as the storm transitions from a marine to land environment. These land effects have been implemented in ADCIRC through a directionally varying surface roughness length, a roughness submergence factor, and a tree canopy factor. We have carefully evaluated each of these effects using the extensive meteorological and surge dataset from Florence in eastern North Carolina. Based on this assessment, improvements are proposed to the land effects in ADCIRC that significantly improved both wind and surge predictions for this storm.
Presenter Bio: John received his B.S. in Geosciences from Florida International University before beginning a graduate program in the Marine Sciences department at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is currently at the UNC Institute of Marine Sciences where he has been using the ADCIRC coastal circulation and storm surge model to investigate the storm impacts of Hurricane Florence on the North Carolina Coastal Plain.
Poster Title: Topographic Analysis of Santa Monica Beach Restoration Pilot Project
Presenter: Ms Melinda Saadatnejadi
Loyola Marymount University
Co-authors: Karina Johnston, Chris Enyart, Karina Alvarez
Abstract: California’s beaches are perhaps one of the state’s most iconic features, with millions of visitors annually. People come from all over the world to surf, film, fish, and enjoy other recreational services. However, sea level rise (SLR) and coastal storm erosion could lead to the loss of these distinctive beaches. SLR in Los Angeles is expected to increase 0.1 – 0.6 meters from 2000 – 2050 (NRC 2012) and is anticipated to accelerate (Grifman et al. 2013), leading to potentially 50 – 100% beach loss over the next century (LACDBH 2016). Current beach management practices throughout much of Los Angeles County include regular daily mechanical grooming or raking to maintain a uniform landscape, pick up trash, and to provide opportunities for various recreational activities (e.g., volleyball, picnics). This leads to a lack of native plant growth and the prevention of sand dune and hummock formation (Dugan and Hubbard 2010).
This research project is evaluating a nature-based adaptation strategy, or living shoreline, for its potential to provide a natural buffer to SLR and erosion through dune formation. These solutions can also offer more cost-effective coastal protection than hard structures at a similar level of risk reduction, since they optimize the existing protection provided by natural systems. Living shorelines have the ability to absorb energy from wind, tide, and wave action, in turn reducing the effects of SLR and climate change. New wildlife habitat, carbon sequestration, improved water quality, and increased property values are just some of the many additional benefits of more natural solutions (The Nature Conservancy 2015).
The Santa Monica Beach Restoration Pilot Project was implemented in 2016 and consists of a 3-acre native plant seeded area where grooming was restricted to promote the development of natural beach morphology. Since 2016, there has been extensive native vegetation growth, the formation of sand hummocks, and the reappearance of the federally threatened western snowy plover within the restoration area (Johnston et al. 2019).
The goal of this research project was to analyze elevation and topographic change at the restoration project over time. Additionally, the project evaluated the efficiency and accuracy of three types of surveys, including elevation poles, a high-resolution GPS, Trimble Geo 7X, to conduct transects, and used the Trimble to survey digital elevation models (DEMs) across the site. Preliminary results show increases in dune elevation and within site elevation across a three-year period and as compared to control transects, with some locations showing over a meter increase in dune height. Additionally, the site continues to become more topographically complex, as identified by the successive DEMs. Results are informing additional living shoreline projects in the Los Angeles region, and throughout southern California.
Presenter Bio: Melinda is a Junior Civil Engineering student at Loyola Marymount University pursuing a concentration in Environmental topics. She has gained much experience from interning with The Bay Foundation over the past year, and is eager to continue learning more in order to find sustainable solutions to environmental problems.
Poster Title: Characterizing the Boundaries of the Upper Saline Plume in Coastal South Florida
Presenter: Mr Kyle Shaver
Florida Atlantic University
Co-authors: Tiffany Briggs
Abstract: At many Atlantic coast beaches, in the region between the foredune to the shoreline, a small area of saltwater rests on top of the fresh groundwater table (that overlies a larger saltwater wedge) known as an upper saline plume (USP). The USP is significant because it creates chemical fluxes between freshwater, rainwater, and seawater in a subterranean estuary along with associated density‐driven flow and biogeochemical processes (Duque et al. 2020). The occurrence of the USP is seen along beaches that have a steep slope, larger grain size, and higher wave energy. To identify the boundary interface of the occurrence of the USP in the southeastern coast of Florida, groundwater samples were extracted at varying depths in the cross-shore at Jupiter and Gulfstream located in Palm Beach County, FL. Conductivity was measured using a water quality probe on the extracted water samples. Additional water samples were collected both spatially and temporally for isotopic analysis. In addition, temporal changes in the location of the USP due to elevated ocean water levels were analyzed at Gulfstream pre- and post- Hurricane Isaias. The goal of this study is to produce a topographic map displaying beach slope versus conductivity/isotope level across and at depth within the beach substrate. The primary objective of this study is to delineate the existence or nonexistence of the USP at south Florida beaches.
Presenter Bio: I am a Master’s thesis graduate student at Florida Atlantic University, in the Geoscience department. The focus of my major is hydrogeology and groundwater chemistry.
Poster Title: Retrofitting Existing Coastal Levees with Pressed-in Sheet and Pipe Piles
Presenter: Mr Takefumi Takuma
Abstract: One of the major factors contributing to damage of levees and other coastal structures during a strong earthquake is liquefaction of the foundation soil and the body of an earthen levee. While Kochi Prefecture of Japan, approximately 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) southwest of the epicenter of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, did not suffer damage to structures from the earthquake or the subsequent tsunami, this southern region with a long coastline facing the Pacific Ocean is expecting very strong earthquakes at any time in the future due to its proximity to a major offshore fault zone called the Nankai Trough. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, part of Japan’s central government in collaboration with the Kochi prefectural government, is retrofitting a total of 13.3 kilometers (8.3 miles) of coastal levees on the east and west sides of the region’s central city of Kochi. The existing levee structures are 30 to 40 years old and made of earthen fill materials with concrete linings and parapets on top. Liquefaction of levee foundations is a great concern for this location due to its sandy soil and a high ground water level. The main purpose of the project is to enhance stability and resiliency against potential liquefaction and resultant settlement rather than increasing their height. Two different pile-supported structures are being constructed inside the existing levees to minimize the chance and effect of liquefaction. The first type is to install double sheet pile walls into existing levees with tie-rods connecting the sheets at the top before backfilling between the sheets and finally capping it with concrete. This is for the levee sections with a relatively narrow crest. The second type is to install a line of pipe piles into the existing levee at or near the existing parapet walls and to reconstruct new parapets on top of the installed pipe piles. This method is adopted for the levee sections with a relatively wide crest. Both sheet and pipe piles are being pressed-in without removing or compromising the function of the existing structures during construction. The press-in piling, which utilizes a hydraulic force generated by a relatively small pile driver, is adopted to install both sheet piles and pipe piles where the working space is relatively tight for larger construciton equipment. With the cobble and gravel layers that the piles have to be driven through for this project, the press-in piling system is capable of installing these piles into this and other hard soil conditions with an auger attachment for sheet piles or a cutting shoe at the toe in the case of pipe piles. There are other sections that are reinforced just with additional wave dissipating blocks because of its low assessed risk of liquefaction.
Presenter Bio: Takefumi Takuma has been with Giken Ltd. for 13 years as General Manager for its U.S. subsidiary and as its Senior Advisor. Giken is the manufacturer of press-in pile driving equipment and the construction solution provider with the press-in piling technology. Before joining Giken, he had worked with a major international engineering contractor for 32 years. He holds a bachelor’s degree from University of Tokyo and a Master of Engineering degree from University of California, Berkeley both in civil engineering.
Poster Title: Characterizing Beaches along the Santa Monica Bay Shoreline
Presenter: Ms Cheyenne Taylor
Loyola Marymount University’s Coastal Research Institute
Co-authors: Cheyenne Taylor, John Dorsey, Kimberly Dobbs
Abstract: Beginning in 2018, beaches along the Santa Monica Bay (SMB) shoreline were characterized using a variety of physical and biological variables with the following aims:
The following 11 beaches were surveyed (from northwest to south, ungroomed beaches in italics): Nicholas Canyon, Zuma, Santa Monica, Dockweiler, El Segundo north of the Chevron jetty, El Segundo south of the jetty, Manhattan, Hermosa, Torrance (south end at Rat Beach), Abalone Cove, and Cabrillo (outer beach). Variables measured along transects (n=5) at each beach included elevation profiles, grain-size and organic matter content of sand, vegetation, percent wrack occurrence and diversity, and other site characteristics.
SMB covers 82 km of shoreline from Point Dume to the northwest through the outer Cabrillo Beach. Sandy beaches occur along 51 km (62%) of the shoreline, mainly from Will Rodger’s State Beach southward to Torrance Beach. The remaining 31 km of shoreline comprises rocky habitat, mostly along the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The mean width of beaches surveyed was 118 m (±5 m), ranging from a minimum of 18 m at Abalone Cove on the Palos Verdes Peninsula to a maximum of 177 m at Santa Monica. In general, the wider beaches were groomed and less variable in grain size and micro-topographic variability. Few beaches contained vegetation, mostly invasive non-native species, in the back-beach areas adjacent to infrastructure like bike paths and parking lots. In contrast, the narrower beaches were frequently ungroomed and had vegetated plant hummocks with small dune systems supporting a mix of native and non-native species. These systems also had more topographic variability. Most beaches had sand ranging from medium fine in grain size (f=2 to 3), although Abalone Cove had a greater amount of coarser sands (f=1 to -2). Mean percent organic matter tended to be greater at ungroomed beaches (2.8%) relative to wider groomed beaches in the central SMB area (0.41%). Likewise, the percent wrack measured along transects following the beach berms was greater at the ungroomed beaches (25%) vs. ungroomed beaches (6%). The most common species of wrack was giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) followed by surfgrass (Phyllospadix torreyi).
These data will be combined with a suite of other geospatial variables to develop a Site Suitability Model, a GIS-based tool now being developed by LMU’s Coastal Research Institute to determine the highest priority locations for living shoreline projects. Additional next steps include filling in data gaps for beaches that have not been surveyed.
Presenter Bio: Cheyenne Taylor is a pre-med senior at Loyola Marymount University majoring in Biology. She has been a part of this project for the past two years through Loyola Marymount’s partnership with The Bay Foundation.
Poster Title: Bimodal Pattern to Land Inundation from Storm Surge
Presenter: Dr Charles Thibault
Abstract: Hurricane Nate was the fourth and final Atlantic Hurricane of 2017 to make landfall on a United States coastline. The storm was the fastest moving Gulf of Mexico storm ever recorded and made its second US landfall near Biloxi, MS. Immediately following Hurricane Nate, high water marks including debris lines and erosional scarps were photographed and compared to elevation data taken from digital elevation models (DEMs). Based on the photograph DEM comparison, the high-water marks indicate a storm tide of 1.8 meters on the Biloxi Back Bay side of the study site a 3-meter storm tide on the Mississippi Sound side of the study site. Following analysis and calibration of DEMs with the high-water mark indicators, simple bathtub inundation maps were developed to determine the extent of flooding for a variety of storm surge scenarios. The inundation maps were used to determine the total area inundated between meter contours. This meter contour evaluation reveals a bimodal pattern with the largest areas inundated occurring at the 0-1-meter (beach and low lying) contour and the 5-6-meter (developed) contour. This information is useful in evaluating the area available for inundation from tropical systems and the potential freshwater and saltwater contributions to surface aquifers.
Presenter Bio: Chuck Thibault is a coastal hydrogeologist and geomorphologist.
Poster Title: Engineering With Nature (EWN) Coastal STORM (CSTORM) Modeling Toolkit
Presenter: Dr Amanda Tritinger
Co-authors: Cadice Piercy, Chris Massey, Rachel Innocenti
Abstract: Engineering With Nature (EWN) features are increasingly being considered as part of flood risk management studies, comprehensive approaches to dredged material management, and ecosystem restoration projects. Currently, incorporating EWN-based flood protection and restoration designs into storm surge and wave numerical modeling systems is a time-consuming and laborious process. Leveraging codes from the developed Coastal STORM (CSTORM) model framework, the objective of this research is to develop an EWN CSTORM toolkit that can be implemented to streamline the inclusion of EWN designs into the numerical modeling process. The following is considered; 1) For proper numerical representation of the EWN features in the surge and wave models, the mesh must have appropriate resolution to capture the feature location and the resulting hydrodynamic conditions. After a polygon is drawn and assigned an EWN feature class, semi-automated insertion of necessary mesh discretization will be executed within the model domains. 2) EWN properties will be assigned as the polygons are generated with the designed feature and will automatically be configured. Most often EWN features are represented in hydrodynamic modeling through topographic or bathymetric adjustments, accompanied by an adjustment in the frictional (Manning’s n) value. The topographic and bathymetric changes will be assigned by the user (see above drop down options), and the Manning’s n value will be available in a look up table. The friction value will be assigned automatically based on the given EWN feature selection, and will be based on existing literature studies or can be interactively selected by the user. Accompanying the toolkit will be a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and suggested methods that will allow users to include EWN feature based designs with the CSTORM suite of numerical models. The EWN CSTORM toolkit will reduce computational and personnel resources associated with EWN feature analysis, allowing users the ability to manipulate multiple aspects of EWN design, ultimately reducing uncertainty related to coastal engineering reliability and resiliency benefit.
Presenter Bio: Amanda Tritinger is a Research Hydraulics Engineer at the Engineering and Research Development Center in Vicksburg, MS. She received her BS in Environmental Engineering at the University of Central Florida, her MS in Civil Engineering at the University of North Florida, and her PhD. in Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering at the University of Florida.
Poster Title: Shoreline Management BMP Verification for Chesapeake Bay TMDL Pollutant Reduction Credits
Presenter: Mr Aaron Wendt
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Shoreline Erosion Advisory Service
Abstract: According to the U.S. Geological Survey, shoreline erosion is the dominant source of sediment to the Chesapeake Bay, accounting for 57% of the load. Human activity, such as agriculture and urban/residential development, can drastically accelerate the natural rate of shoreline erosion. In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) to guide actions to restore clean water in the Bay. An Expert Panel of scientists was convened by the USEPA to develop protocols to estimate pollutant reduction credits associated with different shoreline management practices (e.g., living shorelines). The Expert Panel established basic qualifying conditions for practices and four protocols to calculate pollutant reduction credits. In 2019, the Commonwealth of Virginia released the Phase III Watershed Implementation Plan (WIP), the final restoration plan for Virginia’s portion of the Chesapeake Bay. This blueprint includes goals for implementing shoreline management practices (e.g., living shorelines). The Shoreline Erosion Advisory Service (SEAS), a program of the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR), was established in 1980 to provide technical assistance to property owners, localities, and state and federal agencies experiencing shoreline erosion in Virginia. DCR-SEAS is working to identify shoreline management practices (e.g., living shorelines) across tidal Virginia that qualify for Chesapeake Bay TMDL WIP pollutant reduction credits, verify these practices are installed and meet specifications set out by the USEPA, and quantify and report the earned pollutant reduction credits as part of the Commonwealth’s efforts to meet WIP goals.
Presenter Bio: Serves as an Environmental Specialist with Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. Works in agency’s Shoreline Erosion Advisory Service, providing technical assistance on shoreline management alternatives to property owners experiencing erosion problems; has been in this role for over three years. Has over 15 years of service with the State of Texas, having delivered various natural resource conservation programs, including agricultural nonpoint source water pollution abatement, watershed planning and TMDLs, brush management, border security initiatives, and invasive species management. Graduate of Texas A&M University, having earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Renewable Natural Resources Management in December 1999.
Poster Title: Examining Wave Attenuation and Sediment Transport around Three Marsh Restoration Sill Structures on a Sandy Bed
Presenter: Dr Meagan Wengrove
Oregon State University
Co-authors: Jordan Converse, Meagan Wengrove, Pedro Lomonaco
Abstract: With rising sea levels and more frequent exposure to extreme storms, coastlines worldwide are vulnerable to increased erosion and loss of natural marsh lands. In an effort to lessen these impacts, there is a growing practice of adapting hard or “grey” coastline protection techniques to more nature-based features that promote habitat and ecosystem health. Marsh restoration, commonly referred to as ‘living shorelines’, utilize natural and nature-based materials to protect marsh shores from erosion while also allowing intertidal flushing to promote the health and diversity of the marsh. Our study investigates three types of living shoreline sill designs exposed to medium and high energy wave conditions at varying water levels. The sills were designed to mimic constructed sills in practice (rock, oyster shell, tree root wads), but more generally, vary in structure porosity and material dissipation potential. Large scale laboratory experiments were conducted in the large wave flume at the O.H. Hindsdale Wave Research Laboratory. Wave transmission and reflection are used to demonstrate wave attenuation capabilities of each sill structure. Scour of the sill, bedload sediment transport rates on the seaward and shoreward sides of the sill, and sediment pore-water vertical hydraulic gradients were used to demonstrate the potential for sediment transport and liquefaction. Results will contribute to understanding the effect of sill material porosity and mass on structure stability, and the effectiveness of using green (oyster hybrid and root wad) compared to gray (rock) living shoreline sill structures in the continued effort to establish design criteria for living shoreline implementation.
Presenter Bio: Meagan Wengrove is an assistant professor at Oregon State University with research interests in the physics coastal resiliency (e.g. dunes, marshes).
Poster Title: Analysis of Species-Specific Dune Formation at the Santa Monica Beach Restoration Pilot Project
Presenter: Ms Hanna Weyland
Loyola Marymount University – Coastal Research Institute
Co-authors: Karina Johnston, John Dorsey
Abstract: Beach and dune systems defend coastal communities by creating a buffer between cities and the ocean, potentially preventing damage to coastal infrastructure, and providing habitats for various avifauna and invertebrate species. However, dune systems along the southern California coast are frequently disturbed by mechanical grooming methods. This research project examined the relationship between native coastal vegetation species and dune hummock formation at the Santa Monica Beach Restoration Pilot Project where a 3-acre area of highly urbanized beach is undergoing restoration to create a diverse coastal dune system. Four native coastal strand vegetation species were seeded in the project area in December 2016: Atriplex leucophylla (saltbush), Abronia maritima (red sand verbena), Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia (beach evening primrose), and Ambrosia chamissonis (beach bur).
Using a Trimble Geo 7x handheld data collector, maximum and baseline hummock heights (in meters) and geographic coordinates were taken for approximately 30 hummocks per species. Data were collected approximately three years after project implementation. Using rulers and visual observations, other dune characteristics were measured that included: maximum dune height, length, width; dune tail length; vegetation height, species, and condition; and soil grain size. A. chamissonis was not included in this study due to its lack of overall dune formation within the project site. Dune formations along the fence line were also excluded from surveys because excess sand accumulated along the fence line skewed natural dune formations.
Results indicated that A. maritima and C. cheiranthifolia created individual plant mounds, whereas multiple individuals of A. leucophylla formed single dunes. A. leucophylla had the highest overall average dune height, height difference, longest average tail length, tallest overall maximum and average vegetation height, and the highest number of individual plant patches. However, A. leucophylla had the lowest percent cover of all the species evaluated. A. maritima was typically in the middle range for every category, except for the overall maximum and average vegetation height, where it was found to have the lowest averages in these categories. C. cheranthifolia typically had the lowest numbers for each category observed, except percent cover where it had the greatest percent cover out of all the species. Overall, it was found that A. leucophylla grew the tallest and largest dunes (average height 9.77cm, (average length 166.53cm), A. maritima grew medium sized dunes (average height 8.37cm, average length 98.50cm), and C. cheiranthifolia grew the shortest and smallest dunes (average height 3.48cm, average length 66.63). This research provided insight into natural accretion of species-specific dune hummock formations approximately three years after project implementation. Results will be used to help inform best management practices for beaches throughout the region, and aid in the development of an effective plant palette for future beach restoration projects to maximize the resiliency of our shorelines. Three additional projects in the Los Angeles region are currently utilizing the data for restoration planning.
Presenter Bio: Hanna is a recent graduate from Loyola Marymount University. During her undergraduate studies, she worked on analyzing microplastics found in beach sand along the Santa Monica Bay using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to further examine the types of plastics degrading on our beaches. She also studied the relationship between various coastal strands species and their unique dune formations to help inform best management practices for beach restoration projects. In the fall, she will be attending the University of California, Santa Barbara to pursue a master’s degree in Environmental Science and Management.
Poster Title: Modeling future hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of living shoreline project at Little Lagoon, Alabama using XBeach
Presenter: Elizabeth Winter
University of South Alabama
Co-authors: Elizabeth Winter, Bret Webb
Abstract: Little Lagoon is a shallow, single inlet lagoon located in Baldwin County, Alabama that has been experiencing shoreline erosion for the past 28 years. A living shoreline using vegetation only (Juncus roemerianus and Spartina alterniflora) is being implemented in the southwest corner of the lagoon, located within Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge, to mitigate erosion and contribute to habitat protection. This project will compare “with project” and “without project” hydrodynamics and morphodynamics into the future by using XBeach in a 1-dimensional, transect based, mode. This will be done using a Monte Carlo simulation technique in a probabilistic framework and include the effects of sea level rise. This presentation will show the study area, intended modeling technique, and anticipated outcomes of this research. The results from this project will aid practitioners in the future design and implementation of living shorelines.
Presenter Bio: Elizabeth Winter is a M.S. student in Coastal Engineering at the University of South Alabama. She received her B.S. in Marine and Organismal Biology from Spring Hill College before coming to the University of South Alabama in Fall 2019.