Woods Hole Group
Coastal resiliency is the latest buzzword in coastal engineering however, it is more than just a buzzword, it incorporates the concepts of living shorelines and other standard established coastal engineering best management practices. Living shorelines are one of the primary tools for improving coastal resiliency. The development and implementation of living shoreline projects in New England has lagged behind the rest of the eastern United States, or has it? Long before the terminology living shorelines and nature based features for erosion control were developed, the coastal engineers in New England were developing living shoreline projects. Coastal engineers in New England have been developing shoreline erosion mitigation techniques over the past 20 years that are commonly referred to as soft coastal engineering erosion mitigation techniques. The movement away from traditional rock revetments and seawalls over the past two decades has been driven primarily by coastal wetlands regulations. These regulations have forced coastal engineers to be more creative when attempting to mitigate shoreline erosion. This has led to a strange cycle of design, improvement, and abandonment of several erosion mitigation designs. The reason for this is an initial design is developed and then over several years the design is improved upon until it becomes so efficient at mitigating erosion that it falls out of favor with the regulatory community. At this point the cycle begins again. Living shoreline projects are an important tool in the coastal residency toolbox because these projects have an important role in building and/or enhancing coastal resiliency. As a result, coastal engineers will always try and improve on designs in an attempt to improve erosion mitigation efficiency. This paper will map the development of living shoreline projects in New England over the past 20-years by showing projects that were state-of-the-art when they were first rolled out. Additionally, the design, improvement, and abandonment cycle will be described using example projects that demonstrate how this cycle has developed in New England and has resulted in better living shoreline projects.
Dr. Lee Weishar has more than 35 years of experience in the fields of oceanography, coastal engineering, sediment transport, and nearshore processes. For the past 10 years he has focused on coastal engineering, living shorelines, and wetland/marsh restoration. Dr. Weishar specializes in the integration of biological, ecological, and hydraulic data to develop living shoreline and wetland restoration designs and to ensure that the project will meet the project objectives. Additionally, Dr. Weishar has extensive experience in evaluating the potential impacts of proposed restoration projects on existing wetlands and adjacent transitional, buffer, and upland areas.
Old Dominion University
Living shorelines integrate structural and natural features to reduce erosion from the wave climate while keeping the connectivity between land and aquatic ecosystems. Our ongoing research aims to quantify storm wave dissipation and surge reduction effects of living shoreline designs to better influence more sound design and practice when implementing such shoreline stabilization projects. The project is utilizing the nonhydrostatic NHWAVE model to examine wave dissipation over a marsh sill system during a storm event over a wide range of hydrodynamic and structural parameters, and vegetation characteristics. Over the course of the research the model will be calibrated with data from a field site in Tidewater Virginia. Preliminary results of the modeling project will be presented at the conference to highlight inroads that have been made in the research and to dialogue with other members of the coastal community to provide a better assessment of the level of protection offered by the living shoreline treatment as storm events and sea level rise occur.
Ms. Boswell is a Coastal Engineer with a B.S. in Ocean Engineering from Florida Institute of Technology and an M.S. in Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering from the University of Florida. Currently, she is pursuing a doctoral degree at Old Dominion University. She has previously worked in the private sector as a Project Manager and Project Engineer on a wide range of projects involving coastal processes, shore protection and marina design. She also serves as the president of the Central East Coast Chapter of ASBPA.
Freese and Nichols/Senior Coastal Engineer
The objective of this project is to implement design and construction efforts for shoreline protection and help sustain inter-tidal marsh habitat through a phased implementation of an adaptively managed “living shoreline”. The primary design components include an upland beach renourishment and a broad-low crested breakwater situated on an alignment consistent with historical shorelines at the project site.
Schicke Point is located on the mid-coast of Texas in Matagorda Bay, Texas, roughly 12-miles north of the Matagorda Ship Channel entrance and is the southeast point of Carancahua Bay (with Redfish lake forming the western point) at the confluence of Matagorda and Carancahua Bays. The point shoreline is generally composed of coarse shell-hash sediment that fronts a healthy inter-tidal marsh system. Wind generated wave energy generally approach the project site from the south and southeast, with a long fetch across Matagorda Bay providing direct wave impacts at the project, although eposidic wind and wave energies from northerly storms, generate strong southerly current velocities between Carachaua and Matagorday Bays, creating high-sediment transport conditions along shore, which contribute to both sediment accumulation and the observed erosional processes.
The first phase of the breakwater construction will construct a terminal groin to stabilize the shoreline immediately shoreward of the housing infrastructure and capture alongshore sediment being lost from the littoral system, in conjunction with a series of segmented breakwaters intended to mimic the natural historic shoreline at the project site. The beach renourishment sediment will be placed very near the ordinary high-water line to act as a layer in the natural defense of the marsh. Subsequent work will include monitoring of the shoreline, sediment deposition, breakwater stability, and bio-diversity achieved in the initial phase, to adaptively manage project component maintenance and increasing the overall length of the living shoreline system to develop appropriate design modifications for optimizing project life and meeting ecosystem sustainability criteria.
The intent of this “living shoreline” is to create a multi-layered system that approaches engineering design with ecological design criterial drivers. It is not just a single component that makes a living shoreline successful, but the entire system working together to reflect natural tendencies and match existing project surroundings, through structures, nourishment, vegetation diversity, alignment, orientation, and elevation. The comprehensive approach to ecological details provide the most robust and sustainable project deliverables for protecting infrastructure and engineering with nature.
Cris Weber is a Senior Coastal Engineer with Freese and Nichols in Austin. He graduated from Texas A&M with a BS in Ocean Engineering and from the University of Florida with an MS in Coastal Engineering. He has over 20 years of experience as a project manager and project engineer working with coastal engineering and other multidisciplinary consulting companies. His coastal work experience includes projects in South Florida, Texas, Louisiana, the Caribbean and Mexico.
University of Pennsylvania
Located at the interface between land and sea, coastal dunes are inherently dynamic, arguably the most dynamic terrestrial habitat worldwide. Anthropogenic effects related to climate change, such as increases in the severity, unpredictability, and frequency of storms, will add to coastal dune instability, causing them to become more erratic and management more difficult. Coastal dunes are natural buffers, protecting often densely populated upland areas from high tides and storms and as a result are shaped at various timescales by the abiotic elements associated with coasts. Morphological features and contours of dunes are mainly the products (or scars) of episodic events, but it is hard to quantify how dunes change in response to any one storm. Similarly, the important ecological factors that shape dunes are hard to quantify given that the habitat is constantly in a state of dynamic flux. In an effort to understand just how dynamic dunes are, I used remote sensing and field methods, including monitoring changes in sand accumulation and unvegetated areas at Island Beach State Park, NJ, to document specific shifts in dune shape as a function of recent storm events – Superstorm Sandy and nor’easters Joaquin and Jonas. Changes in the system can be linked to these specific events and is drastic and variable by locality, with the addition or subtraction of up to a meter of sand in one storm event. Understanding these changes requires both pre- and post-storm data. The former is often lacking and thus documentation of this nature is rare, but pertinent from a management and ecological perspective.
I am a second year PhD candidate at the University of Pennsylvania in the Brenda Casper lab studying coastal dune ecology, specifically how coastal dunes respond to and recover after episodic storm events. I grew up just far enough away from the coast in New Jersey to make it a real treat to visit and now I get to go all the time. I am working to fill in existing and acknowledged knowledge gaps in our understanding of how dune systems function ecologically with emphasis on how plant-soil feedbacks affect dune geomorphology.
University of Pennsylvania
Vegetation and biogeomorphology are highly coupled in beach-dune systems, but the role of plants and within that, species effects, on abating storm erosion are largely unexplored. We quantified coastal dune erosion from Superstorm Sandy (October 2012) as a function of pre-storm system characteristics – dune height, beach width, and dominant vegetation-stabilizing dunes (native Ammophila breviligulata or invasive Carex kobomugi)- at Island Beach State Park, New Jersey, USA. Dune erosion was assessed using a combination of pre- and post-Sandy aerial image analyses, GPS mapping, and GIS spatial analyses. We analyzed erosion as a function of two new metrics: macroscale 2D surface area changes, and Dune Crest Transgression (DCT), measured at the microscale (1 m-1) and analyzed using a mixed model accounting for spatial autocorrelation. This is the first study to show a species-effect on erosion – although C. kobomugi reduces native diversity and abundance, it may be beneficial for coastal protection, as dunes fronted by C. kobomugi suffered less erosion than those dominated by A. breviligulata.
I am a second year PhD candidate at the University of Pennsylvania in the Brenda Casper lab studying coastal dune ecology, specifically how coastal dunes respond to and recover after episodic storm events. I grew up just far enough away from the coast in New Jersey to make it a real treat to visit and now I get to go all the time. I am working to fill in existing and acknowledged knowledge gaps in our understanding of how dune systems function ecologically with emphasis on how plant-soil feedbacks affect dune geomorphology.
Rutgers University and New Jersey Institute of Technology
Natural dunes achieve widths, heights and cross shore positions in accordance with natural cycles of beach change and delivery of wind-blown sand. Foredune growth on developed coasts may be enhanced by beach nourishment, sand fencing and vegetation planting. Backshore elevation and width are important as a protective barrier to wave and swash processes and as a source of sediment to the foredune, respectively. Delivery of sediment to the foredune from the backshore can be constrained by fetch distance, textural properties of the surface sediment, and cohesion of surface sediments due to moisture. These parameters vary both over space and time and thus influence the potential for sediment transport to occur. A field study was conducted to determine the effects of these parameters on aeolian sediment transport on a beach and foredune dune at Seaside Park, NJ during onshore winds. The beach is municipally-managed, and a 0.6 m high, partially-buried wooden-slat sand fence with a porosity of 62% was located on the backshore, 3 m seaward of the seaward toe of the foredune.
The study was conducted 13 March to 13 April 2016. This study makes use of data from two sampling periods conducted during the morning and afternoon of 20 March, when strong onshore winds occurred. Masts with Gill anemometers mounted at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 m elevation were placed at six locations across the shore: the crest of the dune, mid-slope on the seaward side of the dune, 1 m landward of the sand fence, 1 m seaward of the sand fence, mid-backshore, and the berm crest. Wind direction was measured using a vane mounted 2.65 m above the ground surface on the dune crest. Data from field instruments were recorded continuously on a Campbell data logger at 1 Hz. Vertical cylindrical traps with a trapping height of 0.37 m and trapping width of 43.0 mm were used to estimate sand transport rates. Traps were placed on the seaward and landward sides of the relatively flat dune crest, the mid slope of the foredune, 1 m landward and seaward of the sand fence, the landward side of the backshore, the mid backshore and the berm crest. Data were reduced to kg m-1 hr-1 to provide a common standard for comparison with other studies. Sediment samples were gathered to a depth of 5 mm at locations 5 m upwind of each trap to describe grain size characteristics and moisture content of source sediment. The samples were sealed in air-tight containers, weighed that day, air dried for two weeks and reweighed.
The backshore had not been reworked by swash action for several weeks, and the surface sediments were coarser than on the foredune. Mean wind speeds at 1.0 m elevation ranged from 11.5 m s-1 on the dune crest to 8.2 m s-1 seaward of the fence. Sediment transport rates were highest landward of the sand fence (up to 7.5 kg m-1 hr-1) and on the dune crest (up to 11.06 kg m-1 hr-1). These rates were two orders of magnitude greater than rates on the mid backshore (< 0.06 kg m-1 hr-1) and inner backshore close to the sand fence (1.2 kg m-1 hr-1). Despite the large source area across the backshore, the supply of sediment from the backshore to the foredune is limited when a surface lag develops. The onshore winds redistributed sediment within the foredune, landward of the fence. The implications are that dune building will be limited where the sediment in the beach matrix cannot be reworked by wave runup and supply finer sands for aeolian transport, for example on nourished beaches that are constructed higher than natural berm elevations.”
Karl F. Nordstrom is a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University. He is a geomorphologist with research interests in sediment transport and evolution of landforms on beaches and dunes in ocean and estuarine environments. His research has also been directed toward beach and dune restoration and land use, requiring assessments of the ecological and social implications of morphological changes. He is an associate editor of Journal of Coastal Research and a fellow of the Geological Society of America and American Association for the Advancement of Science.
WXY architecture + urban design / Founding Principal
Studying ways to adapt to climate change realities, the Rebuild by Design competition sponsored work towards a proposal called The Blue Dunes, a scheme comprised of a new line of artificial barrier islands stretching from New Jersey to Rhode Island. This presentation will review the benefits resulting from a process that facilitated dialogue between scientists and designers. As a response to Hurricane Sandy, and to the challenges of regional coastal resiliency in the northeastern United States, it integrates science with the social art of planning in order to propose a way forward, toward reducing carbon emissions and lowering risks to human settlements.
Claire Weisz, FAIA, is a founding partner of WXY, based in New York City. As an architect and co-founder of the Design Trust for Public Space, her projects focus on infrastructure, neighborhoods and urban ecology. Ms. Weisz is currently a Visiting Critic of Urban Design at Cornell’s College of Architecture, Art and Planning in NYC.
Los Angeles County Beaches & Harbors
The Los Angeles County Department of Beaches and Harbors (LA County) operates and maintains 19 public beaches along Pacific Ocean coastline (mostly in Santa Monica Bay), between City of Malibu and San Pedro, a coastal community within City of Los Angeles. The unique urban setting of Los Angeles County shoreline is one of the most valuable coastal resources in California. Its regional beaches provide recreation and enjoyment for upwards of 70 million of visitors annually.
Because of forecasts on rising sea levels due to climate change, LA County initiated a process of proactive preparedness by assessing the potential threat that its public beach assets may face through year 2100. The Sea-level Rise Vulnerability Assessment presents an overview of existing LA County beach settings, assesses the potential threat that future sea-level rise may pose on recreational assets, and introduces appropriate strategies to be considered to begin a dialog on how best to address the forecasts. Such strategies consist of continued use of temporary sand berm program for short term management, beach nourishment for future management, and possible natural dunes, elevated foundations or even retreat as long term management.
Due to a range of sea-level rise forecasts relevant to the California coast, the assessment summarizes the projections from prominent studies, particularly three from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Climate Program Office, the National Research Council, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and includes potential vulnerability forecasts of the Los Angeles County shoreline as projected in a coastal storm modeling system (CoSMos) study by the US Geological Survey (USGS).
The assessment summarizes LA County’s beach assets and argues that the lack of certainty on how high sea-level will rise and when it will occur makes it difficult to adopt implementation plans now for the future. It also suggests that an adaptive management strategy may provide the most appropriate path to address how best to maintain existing assets and respond to future conditions as certainty becomes more focused.
Ismael Lopez has over 12 years of City Planning experience working with highly urbanized communities, open space, and coastal areas. Mr. Lopez is currently a Facilities and Capital Projects Planner for the Los Angeles County Department of Beaches and Harbors.
Michael Baker International/Coastal Scientist
Sea level rise is a pressing concern in many coastal communities. Some communities are already seeing more frequent flooding of buildings and infrastructure as a result of sea level rise. As water levels continue to rise, more and more people are becoming concerned with identifying their future risk and vulnerability to coastal flooding. There a number of different sea level rise projections available and sea level rise can vary greatly on a regional scale due to the local vertical land motion differences. Therefore it is important for communities to understand their specific risk to sea level rise based on local geology rather than relying on projections that only take global sea level rise into account. Additionally, each community has specific needs as far as time horizons and base water levels (i.e. tidal elevations and storm frequencies) of interest. To analyze local sea level rise impacts on buildings and infrastructure, a detailed coastal flood hazard assessment is needed.
This presentation investigated the findings from our past local, community-scale sea level rise vulnerability assessments. The purpose of this investigation was to uncover what risk and vulnerability assessment methods and mitigation recommendations are most valuable to a community. By comparing our past sea level rise vulnerability studies, we answer the following questions: What aspects of a sea level rise vulnerability study have proven to be the most useful to communities? What are the most effective methods to quantify sea level rise vulnerability? What areas of the natural and built environment are most severely affected by sea level rise? How can communities maximize results given limited funding? And, how can communities seek additional funding to help with sea level rise mitigation projects?
Ms. Ohman holds a M.S. in Earth Sciences from the University of California, Santa Cruz. As a member of the Michael Baker International Coastal Engineering Practice, Ms. Ohman performs and reviews coastal engineering analyses and flood hazard mapping related to sea level rise and flood insurance studies. Her experience includes coastal flood and wave hazard mapping and modeling, sea level rise and climate change impacts on communities, and floodplain vulnerability assessments. Ms. Ohman applies her background to develop materials to effectively communicate flood hazard risk and empower communities to take action and address the challenging threat of coastal flooding.
Program and Project Manager, City of South Padre Island
Sustainability Coordinator Long Beach Township
NJ Coastal Communities are faced with many challenges from the fierce forces of nature to the concious and unconcious man made problems. point and non point pollution in our waterways is one of the more obvious forms of contamination- it is visual representation of the myriad problems that towns face in keeping communities healthy, clean and thriving– Looking at a case study of Long Beach Township we will discuss how effective community and interdeparmental collaborations can build sustainable communities, reduce coastal pollution and empower stewardship in the residents and visitors. LBT has been recognized for the innovative and pioneering public program instituted to be a more sustainable and resilient town. Taking complex concepts and adapting them into public education and engagement strategies has lead the town to become an award winning town. By adapting heady issues like soil erosion, impervious surfaces and permeability into user friendly educational programming with creative twists. LBT has also set the pace with many regional planning inititatives including municipal public access planning, getting to resilience, creative placemaking.
Angela C. Andersen is the sustainability coordinator for long beach township in ocean county NJ- she has a MA in Environment and Community and BS in Environemtnal Studies. She was named Sustainability Hero in Feburary 2015 by Sustainable JErsey and a USEPA Environmental Champion recipient in 2015. She is a Certified REcycling PRofessional and a nationally recognized SUstainable Resource Managment Professional. Long Beach Township won the Governors Environmental Excellence Award for Healthy and Sustainble Community in 2015 and is a certified Sustainble Jersey town. Andersen implements pioneering efforts in the community in collaboration with various organizations, agencies and civic groups.
Presidents Council Hutchinson Island / President
As is attributed to Tip O’Neil, the former Speaker of the US House of Representatives, “all politics is local”. This presentation will address our community outreach experience surrounding a group of nonchalant upland property owners, who turned into an angry mob, but were transformed into a supportive community through proactive engagement and education. The presentation will summarize (a) our public outreach efforts for both a non-federal beach restoration constructed in 2013, and the associated conversion of the project into a federal USACE project via the ongoing Feasibility Study, and (b) lessons-learned that may be applicable to other communities.
Combine vast knowledge, hands on experience, a passion for research, & out of the box thinking, with the ability to create, communicate, and implement successful solutions, to resolve large, complex, potentially problematic, situations. Educated more than 5000 stakeholders who initially opposed cost sharing for the shore protection project, to approve a tax to themselves of $1500 average & obtained 100% of the easements to build the project. Mixed-use, timeshare, and condominium association management of oceanfront property throughout Florida.
San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission
Over the past three years, the Sediment Management Team has been reviewing relevant research and developing data gaps that hamper sediment management within San Francisco Bay. In 2015, a regional workshop was held involving managers from flood protection, navigation dredging, aggregate mining, habitat restoration and watershed communities meeting with coastal and estuarine process scientists, to identify and prioritize research needs to answer management questions. Working together after the workshop a set of research goals and priorities were set. This talk will describe the process the outcomes of the workshop and research strategy as well as how the region has responded to date.
Brenda Goeden is the Sediment Program Manager for the Bay Conservation and Development Commission. She has over 15 years experience in dredging, aquatic aggregate mining, wetland restoration, estuarine beach habitat and the regulatory environment.
Connecticut Sea Grant, University of Connecticut, Extension Educator
Control of shoreline erosion coupled with the desire for shoreline access and viewsheds are significant issues facing coastal property owners. While these are not new issues, significant recent storm events, increased risk due to relative sea level rise, and changes in State of Connecticut permitting have increased demand for new solutions. The State of Connecticut passed legislation in 2012 stating that hard structures (such as seawalls, groins and bulkheads) will be permitted only if there is no feasible, less environmentally damaging alternatives. Alternatives include moving a structure landward, elevating a structure, restore or create a dune or vegetated slope, and creation of a living shorelines. Living shorelines are nature-based solutions that create or restore ecosystem services and natural habitats and may include limited structure (hybrid solutions). Options include tidal marsh enhancement, bank grading and planting, and dune restoration and planting. A Living Shoreline site suitability tool for four living shorelines options in Connecticut was recently developed. This tool is based on a geospatial model that uses coastal conditions and site characteristics to determine stretches of coastline suitable for living shorelines. Outputs from the model include Beach Nourishment, Marsh Enhancement/Restoration, as well as hybrid design options which include Offshore Breakwaters and Marsh with Structures. The model is a crucial first step in considering shoreline protection alternatives to shoreline hardening. The model outputs are displayed in an Esri story map which provides an easy to use format for zooming in on sections of the coastline as well as descriptions of the different living shoreline techniques. While living shorelines are options for parts of the Connecticut shoreline, numerous coastal properties already have seawalls or other hard structures. Even so, Storms Irene and Sandy caused substantial damage and erosion when seawalls were overtopped. Landscaping was destroyed by both salt water and salt spray. In an effort to provide options for coastal property owners to landscape their properties with native salt tolerant species, as well as retain their viewsheds and water access, a coastal landscaping tool was developed. This tool includes the option to choose from 16 different scenarios based on regularity of salt spray, seawall presence/absence and slope. Fact sheets on how to prepare a site, plant it and aftercare are provided, as well as three categories of native plants based on salt spray tolerance. While both the Living Shoreline Site Selection Tool and the Connecticut Coastal Landscaping Tool are proving to be useful for resource managers, property owners and planners, there is still a need for outreach and understanding in the use of these design options, as well as the practical dilemma of access to native plants for purchase.
Juliana Barrett is with the University of Connecticut Sea Grant College Program and the Department of Extension. Her work focuses on climate change adaptation and coastal habitat management and restoration working with Connecticut’s municipalities, NGO’s and state and federal partners. Prior to coming to Sea Grant in 2006 she worked as a consultant and for The Nature Conservancy as the Director of the Connecticut River Tidelands Last Great Places Program. She has a doctorate in plant ecology from the University of Connecticut and is a co-author of the Vegetation of Connecticut.
Hurricane Sandy caused an estimated $19 billion in damages in New York City alone. Power outages, downed telecommunications, liquid fuel cutoffs, and flooding affected tens of thousands of businesses and drained much of their available resources into recovery efforts. Many of these businesses still remain vulnerable to future storms.
Recent advances in information technology infrastructure, hardware systems, and software are providing a foundation for a future of digitally connected and dynamically monitored and controlled civil infrastructure. Due to these advances, real-time monitoring and dynamic controls of stormwater infrastructure is now a viable, cost-effective option to provide enhanced resiliency to flooding.
This presentation will focus on a project based in New York City aimed to help increase the resiliency of local small businesses to flooding and mitigate impacts from future storm surges. As part of the project, business storm surge resiliency audits are being conducted throughout New York City to collect site specific information related to flood risk. The audit information, along with results of regional flood modeling, will be used to identify a select number of pilot sites, where a network of sensors and active controlled floodproofing measures will be designed and installed along with recommended non-active measures.
The site sensors, NOAA forecast data, and other real-time datastreams will be integrated into an Active Floodproofing internet-hosted dashboard for each pilot site. The Active Floodproofing technology will consist of an adaptive system capable of autonomously monitoring storm surge conditions, providing warnings, and initiating actions to close valves or activate floodproofing mechanisms. Small business owners will be able to use their Active Floodproofing dashboard remotely to receive alerts regarding forecasts, current risk, and actions taken by the system to increase their storm surge resiliency in real-time.
Andrea Braga is a Senior Engineer at Geosyntec Consultants in Brookline, Massachusetts. She has over 10 years’ experience in water resources engineering, specializing in the design and implementation of low impact development practices. She has extensive experience in watershed hydrologic and hydraulic modeling. She has managed a variety of projects, including overseeing one of the firm’s largest projects for nationwide construction stormwater audits. She has also been involved in urban and highway stormwater BMP design, monitoring, protocol development, and data analysis through her continued involvement in the Low Impact Development and Pervious Pavement Committees of the Environmental Water Resources Institute.
The coastal northern Gulf of Mexico has many outstanding environmental issues and has experienced in recent years of events that all require the knowledge of the tidal and subtidal hydrodynamics (especially the exchange of water and sediment between estuaries and shelf water). As an example, Louisiana has a significant problem of land loss around the lower Mississippi River basins. In this area, the coastal ocean and estuarine waters are mostly driven by micro tides and weather in moving water and sediment in the processes of flood and ebb, and inundation and erosion. Because of its low gradient of land and relatively shallow and broad shelf, as well as the frequent occurrence of hurricanes and winter atmospheric cold fronts, storm surges can cause significant damages to the coast, not only through the physical forcing of the surges but also saltwater intrusion that can adversely affect the vegetation. We have seen severe storm surge damages in 2005 by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and 2008 by Hurricanes Gustav and Ike. Atmospheric cold fronts also contribute to the evolution of the delta through wind forcing and the oscillation of the coastal water levels. These events, however, are all superimposed on oscillatory tidal currents that can be very swift – although tides are small in the area, tidal currents can be significant because of the amplification effect of currents going through narrow inlets of a relatively broad bay. We all know that the prediction of tidal elevation is quite common and reliable nowadays in most areas. The forecast of tidal currents however is much more difficult because tidal currents are much more sensitive to bathymetry change, bathymetry distribution, and location of interest and the long-term observations of current velocity time series are much more challenging and costly. In this work, we use our long term observations of tidal currents at a number of tidal inlets of the major Louisiana Bays to build an online forecast system that can predict tidal currents and weather induced subtidal currents. The system can be used by general public, researchers, and managers. The system includes all the major tidal current constituents and shallow water constituents. It also includes the effect of weather based on regression of dozens of events. This forecast system is part of the WAVCIS coastal observing system in Louisiana coastal water.
Li got his PhD in University of Connecticut. He is a physical oceanographer. His main interests include estuarine dynamics, storm surge, severe weather induced ocean response, and innovative observations. He has worked on coastal dynamics and estuarine dynamics for more than 20 years. He has been at LSU for more than 10 years, focusing on mainly the dynamics of Louisiana bays under tides and severe weather. His lab is managing the offshore stations of GCOOS off Louisiana coast. He has authored or co-authored more than 70 peer-reviewed articles in scientific periodicals.
On behalf of the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and Massachusetts Bays National Estuary Program (MassBays), Geosyntec Consultants developed TIDEGateway, an assessment and web-based planning tool for tide gates and other tidal restrictions. This project:
TIDEGateway will provide a fully integrated suite of data, interactive GIS tools, modeling projections, and related planning tools. An important component of this project will be the development of a TIDEGateway web-based tool that will provide convenient access to tide gate information without requiring GIS software training or licenses. The TIDEGateway tool will be easy to use, expand, and adapt as new tide gate information becomes available, and can also be easily expanded and adapted for use in other coastal regions.
This presentation will provide an overview of the TIDEGateway geodatabase and field assessment protocols, and will provide a live demonstration of how the web-based analysis tool can be used to simulate ecological restoration potential, flood risk and other features based on specified storm surge events and a range of sea level rise conditions.
Bob Hartzel is a Principal with Geosyntec Consultants with over 20 years of experience in managing freshwater and coastal restoration projects.
NOAA’s Office for Coastal Management
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) vision is a future with healthy ecosystems, communities and economies that are resilient in the face of change. We recognize that coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to disasters while also facing many other powerful long-term environmental changes. We also recognize that decision makers in coastal communities need actionable information – whether it be related to navigation, resource management, decision support, technical assistance, or training. An important goal for NOAA is to help coastal communities make informed choices to assess risk, minimize losses, and protect the things they care about. Our efforts range from collecting environmental data and observations, to developing tools that local-decision makers can rely upon, to offering technical assistance and training to coastal communities, to providing funding that directly supports resilience planning and implementation at the community level. This presentation will provide a broad overview of how NOAA supports coastal community resilience as an introduction to three specific resilience efforts being supported by NOAA’s Office for Coastal Management.
Darlene Finch is the Mid-Atlantic Regional Coordinator for NOAA’s Office for Coastal Management. Darlene has worked for NOAA for almost three decades and spends most of her time working with coastal partners from New York south to Virginia. While her educational background is in urban and regional planning, Darlene spends most of her time work on regional ocean planning, coastal resilience, climate change adaptation and other challenges being confronted by coastal communities in the Mid-Atlantic. Darlene lives in Annapolis, MD and has a penchant for the blue waters for the Aegean.
Jacques Cousteau NERR/ Watershed Coordinator
As part of post-Sandy recovery and resilience building, the Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JC NERR) and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection’s (NJ DEP) Coastal Management Program have been working one-on-one with New Jersey municipalities to identify current and future hazards and vulnerabilities and to increase their preparedness by linking planning, mitigation, and adaptation. This community-based assistance involves face to face review and discussion of risks as illustrated by FEMA flood maps, the NJFloodMapper, and the Coastal Flood Exposure Mapper. Risk and exposure assessments are then paired with step-by-step guidance through the Getting to Resilience (GTR) community evaluation process. This interactive process identifies ways community preparedness can yield valuable points through voluntary programs like FEMA’s Community Rating System (CRS). The assessment process also increases the community’s understanding of where future risks should be addressed through hazard mitigation planning. Over the past two and a half years, more than 40 New Jersey communities have completed the Getting to Resilience process. Lessons learned working with these communities and the future direction of resilience planning in New Jersey will be discussed.
Lisa Auermuller has been the Watershed Coordinator for the Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JC NERR) in Tuckerton, NJ since 2002. Lisa’s role includes assessing the needs of coastal decision makers and assembling training opportunities through JC NERR’s Coastal Training Program. These programs are designed to better inform decision makers through the use of science-based applied research, visualization tools and best practices. Most recently, Lisa’s primary areas of interest have coastal community vulnerability and resilience as they relate to current and future coastal hazards. Lisa oversees a team of Coastal Resilience Specialists who work one-on-one with municipal staff and elected and appointed officials to assess municipal vulnerability and risk, facilitate a resilience preparedness and planning assessment process and to recommend implementation options at short and long-term scales. Lisa’s work combines natural and social science aspects of the coastal decision making process.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management
The NOAA Office for Coastal Management has been working with partners in coastal states and communities to better engage residents and other stakeholders on coastal issues that affect these communities now and will continue to impact them in the future. We have developed guidance documents and training sessions to improve the local conversations and help motivate residents and officials to take action. These tools and resources draw from the science of behavior change and risk communication to improve the way we talk about weather, climate change, and the impacts these hazards will have on the people and places in local communities. Come find out what resources exist to help you engage local decision makers and motivate them to help protect our coastal areas.
Stephanie Fauver has spent over 20 years with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) translating weather and climate information. She began her career as a forecaster with the National Weather Service. Stephanie is currently at the Office for Coastal Management where she helps coastal decision-makers better understand the impacts of weather and climate and use social science tools and resources to find solutions to protect their communities from these hazards. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Physical Science from the University of Maryland.
Graduate Student, Rutgers University
Effective flood and sea level rise risk communication requires much more understanding of people than explaining science information. Individuals often misperceive long-term environmental risks, such as climate change, coastal floods, and sea level rise, because of a number of cultural and cognitive biasesl. Communicators need to find ways to affirm personal values and address these biases through specific framing techniques in order to make messages more relevant and trusted. To help New Jersey officials and others learn more about these methods, as well as find creative ways to practice and perfect delivery, we have developed a series of new materials, including a card-based training activity. The idea behind these materials is to make social science principles salient to those communicating with residents and other stakeholders by using commonly asked questions as a theme. This way, participants can use real-world situations and simulations to learn how to respond more effectively in high-pressure situations. These materials were developed in partnership with NOAA’s Office for Coastal Management, New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection, and the Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve, and will be used in various types of training. I will discuss the background and development of these materials as well as how they have been used.
Sarah Watson is a graduate student at Rutgers University’s Bloustein School for Planning and Public Policy. Her primary interest is using social science principles to help coastal communities develop effective flood, climate change, and sea level rise communication and engagement. She has worked as a risk communication consultant for NOAA’s Office for Coastal Management and partners in New Jersey. Prior to her graduate studies, Sarah was an award-winning environmental journalist at newspapers in New Jersey and Virginia. She holds a B.A. in Journalism and is a candidate for master’s degrees in Public Policy and City and Regional Planning.
Anerican Littoral Society
Co-authors: Tim Dillingham, Shane Godshall, Dr. Larry Niles, Dr. Joseph Smith, Dianne Daly, Steve Hafner
This presentation will provide an overview of Department of Interior and National Fish and Wildlife Foundation funded habitat restoration along the Delaware Bay in New Jersey. The American Littoral Society and its partners have restored over three miles of horseshoe crab and shorebird beach spawning and foraging habitat along the Delaware Bay. This multi-year project is multi-faceted and includes the restoration of eight Delaware Bay beaches in NJ, the creation of intertidal, shelled oyster reef living shorelines, a robust monitoring strategy, marsh restoration through beneficial reuse of dredged material, future planning and marsh design, an educational and outreach program, and a communications strategy that incorporates social media and a video series titled The Hidden Coast. This presentation will summarize each component of the restoration work, the methods employed for creating appropriate habitats, the logistics and techniques of installing an intertidal oyster reef, restoring beaches without offshore sand resources, preliminary monitoring results, and future projects. This ongoing project has produced tangible results which have benefitted not just the ecology of the Delaware Bay but also many Bayshore communities.
Additional: This project was awarded the 2015 New Jersey Governor’s Environmental Excellence Award. Project partners include USFWS, Conserve Wildlife Foundation of NJ, Stockton University Coastal Research Center, and LJ Niles Associates.
Capt. Modjeski is a Professional Ecologist, Fisheries Biologist, and the Habitat Restoration Program Director for the American Littoral Society with over 20 years of experience in science-based coastal restoration and biological monitoring. Prior to his appointment to the American Littoral Society in January 2014, he was a Senior Project Manager, Water Natural Resources Director, and Senior Ecologist for a private environmental consulting firm. On behalf of the Society, he currently manages a number of restoration projects in New Jersey and New York. Projects include living shorelines, beach restoration, salt marsh restoration, flood control, and fish passage. In 2005, he designed and implemented the current fish sampling methodology being used in Wreck Pond today and continues to be instrumental in trying to rebuild the Wreck Pond herring population. He is also a Licensed USCG Operator of Uninspected Passenger Vessels, logging over 680 days at sea.
Mott MacDonald / Principal Engineer
The goal of the project is to establish a living shoreline that will help prevent erosion along the coastal fringe marsh of Bayou La Loutre in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana by using the living shoreline products to attenuate the wave energy that reaches the shore, while stimulating oyster growth and thereby increase the biodiversity in the immediate vicinity of the project site. The project is also intended to provide the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA) experience and data on living shoreline products and their performance in order to design more effective living shoreline projects in the future.
A set of 8 artificial oyster reef products were proposed for use in an erosion control project in coastal Louisiana. A successful living shoreline project will reduce the shoreline erosion and provide ecosystem benefits. Engineering performance characteristics of available living shoreline products, such as wave energy reduction and stability under storm conditions, are limited due to the experimental nature of the products. This presentation discusses the project design and experience from construction using unique artificial oyster reef projects.
Design focused on using the artificial oyster reef products must reduce wave energy transmitted past the designed structure to levels below the marsh erosion tolerance limit to successfully control shoreline erosion. Therefore, the ability of each product to reduce wave energy transmitted past the designed structure was evaluated along with the hydraulic loading on the structures using 2D-V and 3D computational fluid dynamics modeling tools.
Construction utilized precast concrete units and innovative installation procedures. A review is provided on lessons learned applicable to more efficient design, project layout to improve constructability, as well as a variety of installation procedures.
Josh Carter, PE, D.CE, is a Principal Coastal Engineer with Mott MacDonald and manages their Coastal Practice across the Gulf of Mexico. Josh holds a Bachelor’s of Science from Texas A&M University in Ocean Engineering and a Master’s of Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Coastal Engineering. Josh has 15 years of experience working on all phases of coastal engineering projects.
requested session: Green/Grey Infrastructure and Living Shorelines
The Nature Conservancy
In 2014, The Nature Conservancy received a grant from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to implement a project to construct a living shoreline at The Nature Conservancy’s Gandy’s Beach Preserve in Cumberland County, New Jersey. The project will implement and test an innovative technique of creating a nearshore oyster breakwater to attenuate waves while providing unique oyster habitat for economically and ecologically important fish and crabs. There is a need for innovative techniques to create resilient habitats and communities in the face of sea level rise and coastal storms as a critical strategy for conservation organizations and agencies across the Mid-Atlantic. Coastal habitat loss and conversion has reduced the buffering ability of tidal marshes and beaches to upland habitats and coastal human communities from storms and future sea level rise impacts. The poster will discuss the oyster breakwater project at Gandy’s Beach, New Jersey. The presentation will focus on the project’s identification and need, engineered design, monitoring, and preliminary results on pilot living shoreline installations in 2015/2016. An additional goal of the project is to determine the feasibility of implementing this living shoreline technique at other strategic locations across the Delaware Estuary. A discussion on how the project fits into a larger tidal marsh resilience strategy for The Nature Conservancy in New Jersey that includes living shorelines, tidal marsh platform restoration through the beneficial use of dredge material, and land acquisition to allow for future marsh transgression due to sea level rise.
Moses Katkowski is a Coastal Projects Manager for The Nature Conservancy in New Jersey. Moses’ work focuses on coastal habitat restoration and resiliency planning in the New Jersey Delaware Bayshore. Moses has a B.A. from Stockton University, and M.E.S. from Unniversity of Pennsylvania, and has worked for TNC for over 10 years.
ECOncrete Inc./ Manager
With two-thirds of the human population focused around coastlines (Creel, 2003), coastal development and the hardening of natural coastlines are inevitable, but anthropogenic alterations are one of the main drivers for the loss of coastal habitat, species richness and biodiversity (Dugan et al., 2011). Coastal marine infrastructure, such as seawalls or breakwaters, provide a significant amount of open hard substrate for the settlement of marine organisms, but these typically concrete or steel structures do not support similar species to those of natural coastal and marine habitats, and are often overrun with nuisance and invasive species (Firth et al., 2014). Concrete is used for the construction of over 50% of coastal and marine infrastructure (Kampa and Laaser, 2009) and is known to be a poor substrate for biological recruitment and is often considered toxic to marine organisms. Additionally, man-made structures traditionally have high inclination, low structural complexity, and high homogeneity, all of which are rarely exist in natural habitats (Perkol-Finkel and Sella, 2014). Ecological enhancement measures which harness biological processes for creating environmentally and structurally improved infrastructure based on the use of innovative ecologically active concrete technologies developed by ECOncrete Tech Ltd offer an alternative to grey concrete. These technologies increase the ability of concrete-based coastal infrastructure such as seawalls or pier piles to supply enhanced ecosystem services, while improving their structural integrity and durability. This is achieved by slight modifications to the composition, surface texture and macro-design of concrete elements (Perkol-Finkel and Sella, 2014). The intent of two pilot enhancement projects was to integrate ecological considerations into the design and construction of active coastal marine infrastructure at Brooklyn Bride Park waterfront (New York City). The first pilot project is an example of structural repairs for aging infrastructure, where by applying environmentally sensitive technologies for concrete encasement, required structural repair was provided while generating valuable habitat and ecosystem services. The second project served to increase the ecological performance of a constructed riprap, by integrating precast tide-pools as a part of the riprap armoring layer, adding water-retaining habitat features that are not typically found in standard coastal infrastructure(Perkol-Finkel and Sella, 2015). Results are discussed with respect to ecological and biological benefits, and structural performance. The pilot projects demonstrate the ability to harness active coastal marine infrastructure and coastal protection measures for biological and ecological purposes without compromising or limiting their functional purpose, serving to increase the ecosystem services being provided by the structure (Perkol-Finkel and Sella, 2015).
Andrew Rella is the Manager of ECOncrete Inc., a company recently established in New York City but based in Tel Aviv Israel since 2012, offering innovative concrete solutions for marine infrastructure which promote a robust and diverse habit, while serving to reinforcing the structure and elevating local ecosystems. Andrew was previously a postdoctoral associate and lecturer at the Center of Maritime Systems at Stevens Institute of Technology, located in Hoboken, New Jersey. Andrew holds a Bachelor of Engineering in Environmental Engineering, a Masters of Engineering in Ocean Engineering, and a Ph.D. in Ocean Engineering from Stevens Institute of Technology.
Texas A&M University
There is mounting evidence that driving on the beach has a significant biophysical impact, and it has been suggested in a number of recent studies that driving on the beachface leads to a net loss of sediment from the beach-dune system. Identifying a conclusive link between beach driving and beach erosion is, however, complicated by the natural variability of the environment in both space and time, and it has proven difficult to distinguish the driving signal from this background noise. In this respect, the impacts of beach driving are not clear, making it difficult to develop appropriate management strategies to reduce the impact in either degree or extent. LiDAR data from both Padre Island National Seashore and Assateague Island National Seashore are used in the present study to determine if the differences in beach and dune morphology between restricted and open access sections of the beach are associated with beach driving. Results from Padre Island National Seashore suggest that beach driving does not affect the height and volume of the foredunes, but is responsible for a statistically significant decrease in the elevation of the dune crest and base compared to the control section of beach. The decrease in elevation is ascribed to the compaction and pulverization of seaweed wrack that accumulates along the Texas coast in the spring and summer months, and is responsible for the anchoring of sediment for the growth of new vegetation seaward of the foredune. At Assateague Island National Seashore, driving on the beach is shown to cause a statistically significant change in the beach-dune morphology, with smaller dunes set further back from the shoreline within the open access sections of the beach. Despite the changes in dune morphology at both sites, there is no statistically significant difference in beach-dune volume on either side of the beach access road, which suggests that driving on the beach does not lead to a net loss of sediment from the beach-dune system. Driving on the beach does, however, make the foredune at both sites susceptible to scarping and overwash during tropical storms and hurricanes.
Dr. Chris Houser is a coastal geomorphology in the Department of Geography at Texas A&M University with a research focus on the response and recovery of barrier islands to storms and sea level rise.
UT Rio Grande Valley
Dune restoration is a common method of increasing coastal resilience. A dune restoration program was initiated by the City of South Padre Island, TX in 2010 consisting primarily of plantings of Sea Oats, Uniola paniculata, and Bitter Panicum, Panicum amarum and has continued approximately annually thereafter. These restoration efforts were evaluated in this study by comparing dune ecological structure and function among control and restored plots ranging in age from 2 to 5 years. Plant and animal communities were examined using a combination of quadrat sampling, funnel traps, pit-falls and sweep nets. Plant communities were similar across 2 and 4-year old plots but differed markedly among 2 and 5 year plots and among all restored plots and undisturbed control plots. Animal communities followed a similar trend in which all restored plots differed from the control plots with the exception of year 5 plots which were similar. There was additionally a significant correlation between plot age and soil organic matter. These results indicate a rapid return of ecological function of restored dunes.
Shelby Bessette is a recent graduate of UT Rio Grande Valley where she received her MS in Biology studying the restored dunes of South Padre Island. Her assistantship was in partnership with the City of South Padre Island. Shelby hopes to protect these precious ecosystems through outreach and mitigation. Currently, Shelby is doing contract work mitigating and restoring coastal dune ecosystems along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts.
The following paper presents a case study of Follets Island, located in Brazoria County, TX, where most of the island was severely damaged by Hurricane Ike (2008). Several segments of CR257, the only access route connecting Follets Island to Galveston Island and Freeport and a major hurricane evacuation route, were completely destroyed by the hurricane, closing access to emergency responders and slowing cleanup and restoration efforts. Two previous phases have already been completed since the hurricane strike, and included emergency roadway repairs of and construction of nearly 17 miles of revetment adjacent to County Road 257 (CR257).
As the next phase, the Texas General Land Office and Brazoria County have set out to restore the dune and habitat system that was damaged or destroyed as a result of the hurricane. The project seeks to restore as much of the dune and habitat system as possible within the project funding. The general project area shoreline is approximately 9 miles in length starting near the western limit of Treasure Island MUD and terminating near the eastern limits of the Village of Surfside. A priority analysis evaluation was performed to determine preferred locations for restoration of the dune and habitat system. The priority analysis utilized parameters which included shoreline erosion rates, beach width, and consistency with the Brazoria County Erosion Response Plan (ERP). The result of the priority analysis revealed four distinct areas to receive restoration. Priority levels were given for each area where the dune and habitat system will be restored until the project funding is exhausted.
Positioning the dune and habitat system in the cross shore required significant data collection, analysis and community outreach. Extensive data collection efforts including topographical surveys and a wetland delineation were performed along the entire project site. The survey efforts revealed that most of the upland between the beach and CR257 included wetland areas of various sizes. To prevent impacts to these wetland areas the dune and habitat system would need to be located seaward of these areas. However, the dune and habitat system should be located sufficiently landward to maintain public access of the beach. These boundaries (seaward of the wetland areas and sufficiently landward to maintain public access) created a corridor for the design of dune and habitat system. Ultimately, this corridor fell entirely on private properties owned by many different entities. Adjustments were made to the dune and habitat system layout to prevent any impacts to actual structures including houses, timber walkovers, etc. A grass roots campaign was launched to reach out to the various communities and property owners to allow the construction of the dune and habitat system on their property. Approximately half of the private property owners responded and will allow construction on their property.
Currently the project is scheduled for public bid by mid-June 2016 with construction starting October 2016 and is expected to be complete by mid-March 2017.
Mr. Connor is a Senior Coastal Engineer at Mott MacDonald located in Austin, TX. He obtained his Bachelor of Science degree in Ocean Engineering from Florida Institute of Technology in 2005, and holds Professional Engineering licenses in Florida and Texas. He has worked on various coastal and marina engineering projects in the roles of Project Manager, Project Engineer, and Field Engineer. His coastal engineering experience includes performing data collection, damage assessments, analysis, design, specification development, and construction administration for coastal engineering projects along the Gulf of Mexico.
Stevens Institute of Technology
Twenty-one National Data Buoy Center buoys were analyzed to determine if changes in observational practices caused any inconsistencies in the long-term wave record. Wave observations along the U.S. East Coast were investigated and in the case of buoy 41002 contained 41 years of data. The effect of changes such as as platform type and size, wave processing software and type, as well as the buoy type were assessed. Time series were created for weekly and monthly averages for a number of statistics and it was determined that both the buoy type and platform created significant changes to the long-term record. The data sets were corrected to remove the influence of the modifications and then analyzed for long-term trends in wave conditions. In the case of several buoys, the correction caused a reversal in the long-term trend for the wave records. The most dramatic shift occurred for buoy 44013, where the trended shifted from a 13.858 n-mm/year increase to a 0.318 n-mm/year decrease in significant wave height.
Elizabeth Livermont graduated from Stevens Institute of Technology with a B.E. in Environmental Engineering in 2007. In 2008, she was the recipient of the 2008 ASBPA Student Educational Award. Elizabeth was a 2009 Knauss Fellow working in NOAA’s Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. She returned to Stevens in the Fall of 2010 to complete her Masters, and has since begun working on her Ph.D. under the advisement of Dr. Thomas Herrington. In addition, she is currently serving as President for the Student Chapter of ASBPA at Stevens Institute of Technology.
Woods Hole Group/Coastal Engineer
Long Xu, PE, CFM1
Kirk Bosma, PE2
1Woods Hole Group, 81 Technology Park Drive, East Falmouth, MA – 508-495-6273
2Woods Hole Group, 81 Technology Park Drive, East Falmouth, MA – 508-495-6228
Duxbury Beach is a seven mile-long barrier beach on the south shore of Massachusetts Bay. It extends from the mainland in Marshfield, southerly through Duxbury, and ends in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Duxbury Beach is the principal barrier providing storm surge and direct wave protection for Duxbury Bay and the shore of mainland. However, the easterly facing portion of the barrier beach is only about 200-250 feet wide along much of its length, which is fragile and directly threatened by future sea level rise and extreme storm events.
The Town of Duxbury proposed to perform a coastal processes study for Duxbury Beach and Bay, which is intended to provide the scientific and technical basis for improving the long-term resilience of the Duxbury Beach system, including both the ocean and bay sides. The scope of the study includes the collection of site-specific wave data, water surface elevation data, and the application of numerical models to simulate the coastal processes at Duxbury Beach and Bay. The hydrodynamic, wave, and sediment transport models have been developed and applied to better understand the existing conditions, and impacts of storms and sea level rise on the existing conditions. The models provide a comprehensive picture of the coastal processes at Duxbury Beach and Bay, and will be used to evaluate and select potential alternatives for long-term planning to promote the natural resilience of the Duxbury Beach system.
Long Xu, PE, CFM, is a Coastal Engineer of the Coastal Sciences, Engineering & Planning team at Woods Hole Group. He received a Master’s degree in Coastal Engineering from the University of Delaware’s Center for Applied Coastal Research. Mr. Xu has more than 10 years of diverse professional experience in the fields of coastal science and engineering, specializing in the areas of numerical modeling, coastal processes, and FEMA coastal flood hazard study.
USACE-Engineer Research and Development Center
A web application has been developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP) and Regional Sediment Management (RSM) program to quickly assess sediment mobility frequency and migration direction as a function of local waves and current. This is a valuable tool for planning or reconnaissance engineering studies by having the capability to evaluate the potential mobility and migration direction of several sediment grain sizes, and quickly compare multiple sites. The web application transforms wave hindcasts from the closest Wave Information Study (WIS) station to the project site and calculates the frequency of sediment mobility using both linear and nonlinear stream function wave theories. Calculations are made to forecast sediment grain movement onshore or offshore, and a wave rose is created to present the dominant axis of sediment movement. Project sites can be evaluated in English or metric units.
Estimating sediment mobility frequency and migration direction address the significant stakeholder and regulatory agencies concerns of whether dredged sediment placed in the nearshore will move and where it is likely to go. This is critical information for engineers and planners to evaluate the potential volume of material that a nearshore placement operation might yield to beneficially nourish a wetland or nearshore region. This web application can be used as a preliminary step in large projects to narrow the number of nearshore placement sites for further investigation, and can help garner stakeholder and agencies support by addressing their concerns.
Brian McFall is a research civil engineer at the USACE Engineer Research and Development Center in Vicksburg, Mississippi. He graduated with a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2014 with a research focus on the physical modeling nonlinear wave mechanics and coastal hazards. Brian graduated with a Bachelor and Master of Science degrees from Texas A&M University-Kingsville in 2005 and 2008, respectively. After graduating with his bachelor’s degree, Brian worked as a project manager and commercial diver for a small consulting engineering firm in Corpus Christi, TX.
CB&I Coastal & Maritime Services
Beach nourishment is the preferred method employed in the USA and other eroded shores around the world to fight coastal erosion problems. These beach nourishment projects typically use large volumes of sand (>1M m3) which come, most of the time, from offshore sand resources. In many instances, however, the dredging of such features introduces large anomalies in the nearshore bathymetry that cause impacts on adjacent beaches (i.e. Bender and Dean 2003, Benedet and List, 2008).
The magnitude of impacts of nearshore dredge pits on adjacent beaches is dependent on a range of parameters including seabed geomorphology, local wave climate, and borrow area design characteristics (distance from the shore, depth of cut, cross-shore extent, alongshore extent). We report here an engineering and modeling analysis conducted to investigate the impacts of borrow pit design parameters on the level of beach impacts. The objective of this analysis is to identify which design parameters play major roles in controlling the magnitude of borrow area impacts on the adjacent beach and to provide design recommendations to reduce such impacts. This paper is an update of previous work conducted by the authors and presented at the 2008 ICCE (Benedet et al., 2008). Sensitivity model tests were conducted utilizing a process based numerical model known as Delft3D using a schematic model configuration based on real world examples. The borrow area design parameters evaluated were depth of cut, borrow area design shape, water depth where the borrow pit is located and borrow area distance from shore.
Results are evaluated in terms of impact on beach volume changes adjacent to the borrow area compared against a baseline simulation (no borrow area). It was found that despite the generally expected direct relationship between depth of cut and beach impact (the deeper the cut, the greater the influence of the borrow pit on the adjacent beach), there is a critical threshold at which increasing the depth of cut only results in negligible increase in the magnitude of beach impact. In terms of borrow area design shape, the main parameter influencing the level of borrow area impact is the cross-shore extent of the dredge pit (as wider the borrow area greater the impact), however, similar to the depth of cut, there are thresholds of borrow area width where the impacts started to become more prominent. Borrow area distance from shore influences the magnitude and location of borrow impacts moderately. Water depth results demonstrated the expected relationship of gradual decrease on the magnitude of borrow area impacts as the water depth in which of the borrow area is located increases; however, the thresholds of impacts are different for different coasts (i.e. US East Coast vs. US Gulf Coast) due to variability in wave climate between these two coasts.
Guidelines for the optimization of borrow area designs to reduce impact on adjacent beaches are given in an attempt to provide key parameters that define a beach-friendly borrow area design. The guidance focuses on thresholds for cut depths, borrow area widths, impacts from changing distance from shore and water depth where the borrow is located and how these parameters vary with variations in wave climate.
Bender, C.J., and Dean, R.G., 2003. Wave field modification by bathymetric anomalies and resulting shoreline changes: a review with recent results. Coastal Engineering, 49, p. 125-153.
Benedet, L., and List, J.H., 2008. Evaluating the Effects of Dredge Pit Design Parameters on Erosion and Accretion of Adjacent Beaches. In: Proceedings of the 31st International Coastal Engineering Conference (Hamburg, Germany, ASC), pp. 629–647.
Dr. Benedet is currently the director of the Coastal & Marine Services Business line for CB&I where he is responsible for CB&I offices across the USA and Brazil that perform coastal engineering, marine geosciences and coastal environmental work. He obtained his undergraduate degree at UNIVALI in Brazil in the year of 1999, majoring in Oceanography, received his master’s degree at Florida Atlantic University in Marine Geology in 2001, obtained an MBA from at Fundação Dom Cabral in Minas Gerais, Brazil in 2013 and obtained his PhD at Delft University of Technology (TU Delt) in Hydraulic Engineering in the year of 2016. Dr. Benedet is part of the editorial board of Shore & Beach and the Journal of Coastal Research and has published many scientific articles, presented in several domestic and international conferences and participated in hundreds of coastal engineering and marine geosciences consulting projects during his career.
Authors: Benedet, L., Pierro, T., Dobrochinski, J.P.F.
Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.
Tyler (Brock) Wooldridge received his BS in Ecology, Behavior, and Evolution (2014) and MS in Biology (2015) from UC San Diego. Working in the lab of Dr. Joshua Kohn, he studied the impact of human disturbance on sandy beach invertebrate communities, and used a DNA Barcoding approach to investigate cryptic diversity in polychaete worms. Brock is currently a PhD candidate in Harvard’s Organismic and Evolutionary Biology program, where he studies the evolution of behavior in the Hoekstra lab.
It is commonly understood that dredge and fill placement operations associated with beach nourishment activities cause the mortality of benthic infaunal organisms by burial and removal. The temporary loss of these prey species has the potential to affect a wide range of higher trophic level species including commercially and recreationally important fish as well as threatened and endangered species such as the piping plover. As such, state and federal regulatory agencies have often required pre- and post-construction infaunal monitoring as a condition of a project’s permit. The response and recovery of infaunal and epibenthic organisms following beach nourishment projects has been well vetted in both primary and grey literature. The results of these studies suggest a range of recovery rates which are often dictated by construction practices. To reduce the recovery rates and thereby minimize the indirect effects to these important biological resources, we recommend the use of several best management practices for beach nourishment project. Should these measures be utilized, it is recommended that the continuation of costly infaunal monitoring studies required as a condition of future beach nourishment projects be curtailed.
A 2-year study of the ecology of eight surf zone sites in southeastern North Carolina spanned a regular nourishment cycle at four of those sites. Primary producers, primary consumers, macrobenthos, and fishes were sampled at least seasonally and immediately before and after nourishment events. Strong seasonality emerged from many biological metrics. Biological production in the surf zone is high in comparison to offshore waters. The surf zone’s productivity links offshore recruits and larval forms to estuarine habitats. Nourishment effects were insignificant to minor at lower trophic levels, but became more pronounced at higher trophic levels, including effects on physiology and spatial displacement of fishes.
First author Lawrence Cahoon is Professor of Biology and Marine Biology at UNC Wilmington. Second author Thomas Lankford is Associate Professor of Biology and Marine Biology at UNC Wilmington. Third author Troy Alphin is Research Associate and PhD student at the UNCW Center for Marine Science. Fourth author Kelly Stull earned an MS in Marine Biology at UNC Wilmington.
Dial Cordy and Associates
Currently, NC sand placement projects that may affect Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed species and/or their critical habitats are addressed individually through separate consultations and accompanying project-specific Biological Assessments. Numerous separate consultations may delay projects, resulting in a need for more efficient consultation approaches. Furthermore, separate individual-project consultations do not provide an effective mechanism to address the combined regional-scale effects of multiple projects implemented over extended timeframes. The goal of this Regional Biological Assessment is to facilitate the establishment of a regional consultation framework that will streamline the consultation process for routinely implemented sand placement actions and provide for a more effective regional-scale approach to species conservation. Many of the projects that are currently addressed through separate consultations involve similar recurring activities with relatively minor predictable effects and shared project approval requirements (i.e., conservation/mitigation requirements). The consultation process for projects that share these characteristics can be effectively streamlined by combining them under a single programmatic-level regional consultation.
This Regional Biological Assessment is being prepared in accordance with Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act to address the effects of federal and federally permitted sand placement activities on threatened and endangered species and critical habitats under the jurisdiction of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The proposed action involves sand placement actions along the coast of North Carolina for which the USACE Wilmington District is the lead federal action agency for Section 7 consultation purposes; including federal projects undertaken as components of the Wilmington District’s shore protection and navigation missions and non-federal public and private projects that require a USACE permit pursuant to Section 404 of Clean Water Act. The RBA scope encompasses all shore-based project activities associated with the placement of sand on the beach; including onshore hydraulic pumping activities, dredged material dewatering, beach profile construction, and post-construction beach tilling and escarpment leveling. The USACE Wilmington District is preparing this Regional Biological Assessment in coordination with the NC Division of Coastal Management, Dial Cordy and Associates, and Moffatt & Nichol to initiate a programmatic regional consultation with the USFWS pursuant to Section 7 of the ESA. It is the intent of this presentation to engage the coastal stakeholders with this project and its goal of developing a streamlined regional consultation process for routinely implemented sand placement activities that have similar project approval requirements.
Rahlff Ingle, Senior Ecologist, Dial Cordy and Associates: Mr. Ingle specializes in integrated natural resource management planning, wetland and stream impact assessment and mitigation, NEPA impact assessments, and ESA compliance for DoD military installations and USACE civil works programs. His experience encompasses water resource assessments throughout the southeastern US; including numerous studies for the Wilmington, Charleston, Savannah, and Jacksonville US Army Corps of Engineers Districts. His work in NC includes the preparation of integrated natural resources management plans and endangered species management plans for Fort Bragg and Camp Lejeune, an aquatic ecosystem restoration feasibility study for three streams in the City of Concord (Cabarrus County), and the implementation of a monitoring study to assess the impacts of the Wilmington Harbor deepening project on freshwater tidal wetlands along the Cape Fear, Northeast Cape Fear, and Black Rivers.
CDM Smith Water Resource Engineer
The North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS) [http://www.nad.usace.army.mil/CompStudy] was developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) in response to Hurricane Sandy, with a goal of providing a coastal storm risk management framework. The coastal storm risk management framework is a process to address flood risks to vulnerable coastal populations. The framework presents nine total steps, with the Tier 1 analysis (as presented in the NACCS report) focusing on the first five: (1) initiate analysis (2) characterize conditions (3) analyze risk and vulnerability (4) identify possible solutions and (5) evaluate and compare solutions. The process is organized in a tiered approach, with Tier 1 representing the application of the framework at a regional scale, Tier 2 representing the application of the framework at a state level, and Tier 3 representing the application on a localized scale, with each tier engaging stakeholders and utilizing inputs which reflect the priorities of the of the region being evaluated. In step three of the framework, analyzing risk and vulnerability, vulnerabilities were classified according to three exposure categories: (1) population density and infrastructure, (2) social vulnerability, and (3) environmental and cultural resources. The probability of experiencing a hazard, the combined consideration of exposure, and probability of experiencing a hazard, are used to identify areas of relative high risk. Once these areas are identified, appropriate measures and studies can be performed to manage the coastal storm risk.
As part of the NACCS, this framework was applied on a regional scale as a Tier 1 analysis, encompassing all coastal areas impacted by Hurricane Sandy within the USACE North Atlantic Division (NAD). Tier 2 analyses of this framework were performed at the state level, and throughout nine focus areas, which include areas of estuaries and back-bays subject to coastal flooding, which warranted detailed analysis. This presentation will provide an example of the application of the NACCS framework to identify areas of coastal storm risk in an area of coastal New Jersey along the Navesink and Shrewsbury Rivers. This presentation will also discuss the application of this methodology beyond those areas impacted by Hurricane Sandy.
Ms. Klonsky is a water resources / coastal engineer at CDM Smith with specialization in the areas of coastal processes and climate change resiliency. She received a Coastal Engineering Certificate from Old Dominion University in 2012 and an M.S. in the field of Environmental Engineering from Tufts University in 2008.
USACE Coastal Storm Risk Management Planning Center of Expertise/Philadelphia District
The Atlantic Coast of New Jersey is fronted by a Federal Coastal Storm Risk Management (CSRM) program (Hurricane Sandy Coastal Projects Performance Evaluations Study (USACE, 2013). However, the New Jersey Back Bays (NJBB) study area, which encompasses five counties, approximately 1,300 square miles and 950 miles of coastline, currently lacks a comprehensive CSRM program. As a result, the NJBB region experienced major impacts and devastation during Hurricane Sandy and subsequent coastal events owing to the low elevation areas and highly developed residential and commercial infrastructure along the back bays coastline.
The purpose of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) NJBB CSRM Feasibility Study is to catalyze and spearhead innovation and action by all in the NJBB region to implement comprehensive CSRM strategies to increase resilience, and to reduce risk from future storms and impacts of sea level change. The objective of the NJBB CSRM Study is to investigate CSRM problems and solutions to reduce damages from coastal flooding that affects population, critical infrastructure, critical facilities, property, and ecosystems.
The NJBB is one of nine focus areas identified in the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS), whose goals are to:
The study will consider and develop solutions with respect to past, current, and future CSRM and resilience planning initiatives and projects underway by the USACE and other Federal, State, and local agencies. Four overarching efforts will be performed:
1) Assess the study area’s problems, opportunities and future without project conditions;
2) Assess the feasibility of implementing system-wide coastal storm risk management solutions such as policy/programmatic strategies, storm surge barriers at selected inlet entrances, or tidal gates at selected lagoon entrances;
3) Assess the feasibility of implementing site-specific perimeter solutions such as a combination of structural, non-structural, and natural and nature-based features; and
4) Assess the impacts of back bay strategies and solutions on the Atlantic Coast CSRM Program towards developing recommendations within a systems context given likely future scenarios.
ASBPA is dedicated to preserving, protecting, and enhancing our coasts by merging science and public policy. In 2015, ASBPA developed a 3 year Strategic Plan to guide our mission. One of the stated goals in the Strategic Plan is to expedite permitting and approval time for federal and non-federal coastal protection projects. Regulatory constraints reduce the time available for and delay the start of constructing projects that protect coastal communities. While the protection of species, clean water and maintaining other ecosystem functions are vital to a healthy coast, ensuring permitting processes are as efficient and expedited as possible is necessary to avoid the loss of shore protection for habitat, private property, and public infrastructure.
Even while the Strategic Plan was being finalized, a group of ASBPA members composed of coastal scientists, coastal engineers, and local government managers began the process of identifying the specific issues that lead to non-project related permitting delays. After identifying these issues the group began using their knowledge of both science and public policy to developing specific objectives and action items.
This presentation will list the common issues identified by the team as causing non project related permitting and review delays. The presentation will also discuss examples from recent projects that were delayed by permitting issues. The presentation will also discuss some of the objectives and action items that the ASBPA Government Affairs sub-committee has identified to meet the stated goal of expediting permitting and approval times. Finally, the presentation will update attendees on the current status of the ASBPA’s efforts in meeting the objectives of expediting permitting and approval times.
Mr. Willson is a client program manager for CB&I (formerly CPE) based out of Wilmington, NC. He has assisted coastal clients in Virginia, North Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana for over 13 years. Mr. Willson earned a BS and MS in Geology from the University of North Carolina at Wilmington, and a Coastal Engineering Certification from Old Dominion University. Mr. Willson oversees beach and inlet management programs for coastal clients. These projects include the design, permitting, construction, and long term monitoring of beach nourishment and inlet management programs.
Coastal Tech-G.E.C. Inc.
Healthy coasts are a wise investment. Coastlines protect communities from storms and sea level rise, provide habitat and ecological benefits, support coastal economies, provide recreation to local residents and draw tourists from around the world. This means healthy coastlines bring multiple returns on the investment made by the federal government, state and local project sponsors and private investors. Including these multiple benefits in benefit-cost ratios (BCRs), as well as looking for cost efficiencies through collaboration, are critical to preserving our coasts
In 2016, ASBPA advocated that Congress:
Appropriations bills (A) and a Water Resources Development Act (B) face a highly partisan Congress and a short congressional calendar in 2016, but their fates will be decided by mid-summer. This presentation will review the funding and policies implemented (or not implemented) in these bills in 2016.
Long term coastal funding got a potential boost with the inclusion of the National Endowment for the Oceans Act in the Omnibus Appropriations Act of Dec. 2015. This bill establishes a national trust fund for ocean and coastal projects, but a funding source has yet to be identified. Dedicated funding for Gulf Coast restoration through the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act (GOMESA) came under fire in the Administration’s budget, where the funds were re-allocated to a national coastal resiliency effort, but this proposal died in Congress.
This presentation will include a review of these issues and expected issues on federal investments in our coasts in 2017.
Jackson State University
To be most effective, coastal restoration projects must fit within a science-based regional plan and be implemented in coordination with other projects to achieve maximum benefits. Regional planning is already occurring, but needs further work, in:
o A complete project list;
o A clear process for how future projects and funding are determined;
o Either a sediment budget for the Gulf Coast or an outline of a process for the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management to develop a Gulf-wide sediment budget.
Regional coastal planning should be authorized and undertaken in:
This presentation will include a review of the regional planning efforts for the Gulf and North Atlantic, including what the implications are for coastal projects in the region, and discuss what’s needed for, and the likelihood of, regional planning in the South Atlantic and Pacific coast in 2017.
Thomas Richardson is Deputy Director of the Department of Homeland Security’s Coastal Hazards Center of Excellence at Jackson State University. The Center is co-led by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is an engineering graduate of The Citadel, the University of Miami, and the International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering in Delft, The Netherlands. His career has focused on managing and performing applied research in coastal and hydraulic engineering. In 2009, he retired as Director of the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory of the Engineer Research and Development Center and began work at his current position.
American Shore & Beach Preservation Association
2017 will bring a new administration and new members of congress. A number of senior coastal members of congress are retiring, opening up new leadership spots on important committees. This presentation will briefly highlight key coastal positions likely to see turnover in 2017, but most of this presentation will be a conversation among panelists and audience about issues ASBPA should be working on in 2017.
Derek Brockbank is the executive director of ASBPA, running ASBPA’s government affairs work, and overseeing organizational strategic planning. H has been an organizer and run conservation campaigns around the country and in Washington, DC for the past 12 years. His focus has been on climate change adaptation and restoring natural resources. Before starting at ASBPA he directed a campaign to restore the Mississippi River Delta and Coastal Louisiana through a coalition of conservation organizations including National Wildlife Federation, National Audubon Society and Environmental Defense Fund.
AECOM/ Director of Civil Works Planning
Approaches to evaluating Coastal Storm Damage have evolved tremendously over the years. This presentation will provide an overview of the benefit analysis conducted for the Sandy Hook to Manasquan Inlet projects including conference site in the City of Long Branch. The presentation will document the development of the approach to evaluating damages from waves, erosion and inundation and the identification of the critical damage source. The conditions before the project will be compared to current conditions to demonstrate the project impacts.
The benefit approach for the some of the Sandy Hook to Manasquan project will be contrasted with the use of Beach-fx to quantify damages for the Rockaway Beach Project. The Beach-fx storm damage model is the current USACE certified model to provide a detailed event driven analysis of plan performance and damages. The Beach-fx model application for Rockaway Beach included analysis of the combined impacts of shoreline change, storm erosion, waves and flooding. This analysis considered five alternative plans under three different sea level rise conditions. As a part of the Rockaway Beach analysis, the presentation will also introduce the updated coastal damage relationships developed under the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS). These functions used information from Hurricane Sandy to develop updated Wave, erosion and inundation damage relationships in a form compatible with the Beach-fx model.
While standard models such as Beach-fx are appropriate for assessment of damages along ocean shorelines, there are many instances where the primary coastal storm damages are due to inundation overwashing a barrier island or storm surge in bays or tidal creeks. The presentation will provide an overview of the approaches used to quantify the impact of cross barrier flooding in the Long Beach NY and Rockaway Beach projects and the need to occasionally develop custom storm damage simulation models.
In closing the presentation will introduce the coastal storm damage modelling approach incorporated into Generation 2 Coastal Risk Model (G2CRM), a new USACE model currently being tested.
Mr. Cannon has over 30 years in the performance and management of water resource projects with a focus on flood risk management, and coastal protection Feasibility Studies, primarily for the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Past projects have included the Atlantic Coast of NJ from Sandy Hook to Manasquan, Long Beach, NY, Port Monmouth and Union Beach in NJ. He recently served as Deputy Project Manager for the consulting team supporting for the USACE North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS). His ongoing projects include the South Shore of Staten Island NY, Rockaway Beach NY, Fire Island Inlet to Montauk Point NY, and Highlands NJ.
US Geological Survey
Understanding and forecasting coastal erosion hazards during extreme storms have become very important in recent years. A number of strong storms have greatly impacted the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts recently; e.g. Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Hurricane Sandy in 2012, as well as strong nor’easters in 2013, 2015, and 2016. In order to help coastal and emergency planners, the USGS Coastal Change Hazards project developed models that forecast the coastal impacts due to hurricanes and nor’easters. Using generalized storm conditions, coastal erosion hazards during hurricanes and nor’easters have been assessed for Atlantic and Gulf Coast sandy beaches. The models are also used in a real-time sense to determine the probability of coastal change for a specific storm before landfall is made (http://marine.usgs.gov/coastalchangehazardsportal/). This USGS Coastal Change Hazards Portal is also the outreach tool that is being used in ASBPA’s resilience work. Here, we compare predictions of coastal change made prior to Hurricane Sandy’s landfall to observations of storm-induced coastal change in order to determine the accuracy of the pre-storm predictions.
Hurricane Sandy, the largest Atlantic hurricane on record, made landfall near Brigantine, New Jersey on October 29, 2012, and impacted a large swath of the U.S. Atlantic coastline. Barrier islands were breached in a number of places and beach and dune erosion occurred along much of the mid-Atlantic coast. A simple storm-impact scaling model (Sallenger, 2000; Stockdon et al., 2012), which compares total water level at the shoreline to dune elevations, was used to determine the likelihood of dune erosion (collision) and overwash on sandy beaches in New Jersey and New York. The maximum total water levels were calculated as the sum of modeled storm surge and wave runup, which was estimated from offshore wave parameters and the mean beach slope using an empirical parameterization (Stockdon et al., 2006). The elevation of dune crest and toe were determined using lidar-based topographic surveys.
Observed impacts were measured by comparing pre-storm lidar data to that collected in the weeks following the storm. As would be expected over such a large region, extensive spatial variability in storm response was both predicted and observed. In general, the coastal response regime was over-predicted south of landfall in New Jersey where dune erosion was widespread (overwash predicted), and response was under-predicted north of landfall in central New Jersey where extensive overwash was observed. While the coastal response regime predictions were more accurate in New York, both over- and under-prediction of the regime was present.
The simple scaling model makes some assumptions that allow for its versatility; natural alongshore variability in beach slope and dune features is reduced due to filtering, and intra-storm sediment erosion and deposition is ignored as the model uses static forecast maximum total water level and pre-storm features. Analyzing and understanding both the successes and failures of this model to predict the impacts from Hurricane Sandy on the New Jersey and New York coasts will help improve our predictions for the future.
Justin Birchler earned a B.S. in Marine Science from Coastal Carolina University in 2010 and earned an M.S. in Marine Science from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science in 2014. He has worked at the USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center since 2014 as a member of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards group. His research activities include analysis of beach and dune features along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, extreme storm wave modeling in the Atlantic Ocean, and studying beach and dune erosion hazards under extreme storms.
Davidson Laboratory, Stevens Institute of Technology
A coupled circulation-wave model is utilized to simulate wave-induced surge (wave setup and setdown) during Hurricane Sandy in New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ) Harbor. The circulation model is the Stevens Institute of Technology Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Model (sECOM), which is the three-dimensional circulation model used in the New York Harbor Observing and Prediction System (NYHOPS). The wave model is the spectral wave model developed by Mellor, Donelan, and Oey (2008) . The coupled model takes into account wave-current interactions through water depth and velocity, wave-enhanced water surface roughness and wind shear stress, wave-current bottom shear stress, and depth-dependent wave radiation stress. The model is validated using significant wave heights and average wave periods observed at NOAA-NDBC’s buoy stations in the apex of NY Bight, and observed water elevations from NOAA tide gages at The Battery and Sandy Hook, and USGS temporary gages at Long Beach and Staten Island. Comparisons between the model results and measurements demonstrate the capabilities of the model to accurately simulate Sandy-induced storm tides and waves. The model results indicate that the maximum contribution of wave setup to the total water elevation in NY/NJ Harbor was about 0.25 m. The maximum wave setup at The Battery and Sandy Hook was about three percent of the maximum wave height at offshore. It is found that the inclusion of wave-induced surge improves the accuracy of the modeled storm tides.
Reza Marsooli is a postdoctoral scientist in Davidson Laboratory, Stevens Institute of Technology. He has received his BS in civil engineering, MS in water resources engineering, and PhD in computational hydro-science. Reza’s research focuses on both basic and applied aspects of surface flows and sediment transport in riverine, estuarine, and coastal systems. His specific research interests include: flood modeling, storm surge and wave modeling, wave-current interactions, wave-current-vegetation interactions, sediment transport, dam/levee break/breach flow, and debris flow. Mathematical modeling is his main research approach. Reza is currently studying the influence of coastal adaptation strategies on flooding and waves in Jamaica Bay, New York.
Michael Baker International/Technical Manager
The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) Route 52 Causeway Replacement Project is one of the largest transportation infrastructure improvement projects ever undertaken in the State. The project involves reconstruction of approximately three miles of State Route 52 including replacement of the existing bridges and causeway over two miles of the Great Egg Harbor Bay, including three bay islands. The Causeway crosses Great Egg Harbor Bay connecting the coastal communities of Ocean City and Somers Point and serves as the principal evacuation route. The project consists of replacing the 2.2 mile causeway, including 4 bridges as well as reconstructing the approach roadways. The Great Egg Harbor Bay is a shallow, tidally controlled bay composed of large expanses of open water and scattered islands. The bay is valued for its commercial shellfish resources, wetlands, wildlife habitat, and important recreational and commercial fisheries. As part of the project, dredging was proposed to re-align two deep channels to accommodate the geometry of the bridge. During the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) agency coordination, the United States Corps of Engineers (USACE) expressed concerns that the re-aligned channels may increase erosional forces affecting the already severely eroded shorelines of the bay islands. The NJDOT through the Federal Highway Administration committed to stabilize the shoreline through a combination of hard armoring and native plantings.
Four stabilization details were developed and implemented based on the energy regime of the shoreline. The details general consisted of regarding the shoreline using available on-site material from a steep cut to a 3:1 slope, tying into the existing marsh. A coir fascine (coconut fiber log) was anchored at elevation 0’ (NAVD 88) with Spartina alterniflora planted landward of the coir fascine with soil stabilization matting and in some areas, riprap placed waterward of the coir fascine. The contract was developed in a way to divide the shoreline stabilization activities over two years in order to apply lessons learned from the first season to the second season. The first installation was completed over the summer of 2010 with mixed results attributed to a combination of installation, environmental conditions, and materials. Areas with low energy regimes and/or with sandy substrate were relatively successful. Others required design changes to correct for observed deficiencies. Design changes included changing planting materials from pre-vegetated coir mattresses to plugs, increasing riprap sizes, installing the coir fascine at elevation 1’, providing the contractor the option of using more suitable material, installation of goose exclusion fence, and most importantly, sharpening installation techniques to prevent soil loss. Grading for the second season of shoreline stabilization was performed in August 2011 and February 2012 with planting in spring 2012. The shoreline stabilization measures were put to the test by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. In general, the adaptive management strategies performed as designed and minimized shoreline erosion.
Becky Traylor is Technical Manager with Michael Baker International working out of their Hamilton, New Jersey office. She has earned a Masters Degree in Environmental Studies from the University of Pennsylvania and a Bachelor of Science in Ecology from Rutgers University. She is certified as a Professional Wetland Scientist and Ecologist. Ms. Traylor has been involved in all stages of transportation projects from preliminary planning through post-design and construction. Although her expertise centers on transportation, she has more recently focused on public infrastructure aimed to address resiliency in coastal communities ranging from ecological restoration and green infrastructure to structural flood protection.
Florida Atlantic University, Dept. of Geosciences, Boca Raton, FL
Palm Beach County has some of the highest density sea turtle nesting beaches in the country, with over 25,000 nests laid in 2014. Green, Leatherback, and Loggerhead sea turtles nest on over thirty miles of the dynamic, critically eroded coastline in Palm Beach County. To help mitigate erosion and maintain the economic vitality of the Palm Beaches, dune restoration and beach nourishment projects are constructed annually. However, these projects also have the potential to impact the viability of sea turtle nesting sites. This study evaluates the characteristics of various sediment sources (e.g., grain size distribution and daily fluctuations in temperature of placed sediment) used in dune restoration and beach nourishment projects in 2015 in Palm Beach County and whether a correlation exists with sea turtle nesting and hatchling success rates.
Temperature and humidity monitors (HOBO data loggers) were installed at six sites characterized as either a full nourishment beach, dune restoration only, or native beach. The sediment borrow sources for these projects include maintenance dredge material from different offshore and inlet locations, as well as mined sediment. At all six sites, a total of 36 HOBO data loggers were placed along transects perpendicular to the shoreline at high, mid, and low cross-shore elevations, at a depth of 45 cm and 70 cm. The data loggers were monitored as part of the daily nesting surveys during the 2015 nesting season. Sediment samples from each location were analyzed and compared with the turtle nesting data to identify potential sedimentologic factors influencing hatchling success.
Based on the results from the 2015 nesting season, success rates were higher along the beaches with coastal construction projects, as compared to the native beaches. Nesting and hatchling success also appears to correlate with certain grain size ranges. The results from this study will be presented as part of an ongoing effort to determine best management practices in protecting sea turtle populations.
Julie Cisneros holds a B.A. in Environmental Sustainability and is a Ph.D. student in Geoscience at Florida Atlantic University. She is focused on the sustainability of coastal regions under various environmental stressors (including storms and erosion mitigation efforts). She is also a member of the Deerfield Beach Marine Advisory Board.
USACE, Portland District
Trestle Bay is a 628‐acre, jetty‐lagoon feature located on the South (Oregon) side of the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR). The area is separated from the Lower Columbia River estuary by the MCR South Jetty Root. The Trestle Bay Project involved creation of seven openings through the portion of the South Jetty that crosses the Bay. Each jetty breach extends from the jetty crest elevation all the way down to adjacent grade (the surface elevation of the adjacent river bottom). The primary purpose of the jetty breach locations is to provide spatially distributed access for juvenile salmonids to the more remote areas of fringe habitat within the jetty lagoon. The primary purpose of taking the breaches down to adjacent grade is to maintain fish access throughout the full tidal cycle to the extent allowed by the adjacent bathymetry. An expected additional project outcome is to provide improved export of nutrients and detritus from the bay into the main stem of the Columbia River, which the intact rubblemound jetty was screening out of the ebb‐tidal currents flowing through it.
Prior to project construction, numerical modeling was conducted to verify planning assumptions and to evaluate the adequacy of the proposed project concept, which was developed under the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 536 Program. The project planning assumptions required that the project purpose be accomplished in a manner that maintained the pre‐project tidal fluctuations and general geomorphology of the bay, that was self‐sustaining (requiring no maintenance of the jetty structure or adjacent habitat areas), and avoided impacts to adjacent Corps projects. Adjacent Corps projects include the Columbia River Federal Navigation Channel, a functional jetty system (particularly, the functional MCR South Jetty), and an existing environmental improvement project (a 500‐foot lowered segment of the jetty).
The 2‐dimensional (2D) shallow water module of the USACE Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) Model was used to quickly assess ebb and flood circulation as a result of the project. Two specific areas next to adjacent Corps projects were selected for focused evaluation of changes in water depths and circulation patterns in the near‐field Columbia River and within the jetty lagoon. Modeling, completed in November 2015 included eight separate cases including pre‐project conditions, variations in construction sequencing, and a consideration of sea‐level rise. Project construction was successfully completed in February 2016.
Lynda Charles, Jim Crain, Laurie Ebner – US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District, Portland, Oregon
Mott MacDonald/Coastal Engineer
Historically, the Cedar Bayou channel, which separates San Jose Island and Matagorda Island in the Texas Coastal Bend region, allowed fish and other marine life to pass between Mesquite Bay and the Gulf of Mexico providing food sources to a number of coastal inhabitants, including wintering whooping cranes, a critically endangered species. Over the past decade, the channel was completely closed and required opening in order to restore circulation. In 2014, Vinson Slough was connected to Cedar Bayou and Cedar Bayou was reconnected to the Gulf of Mexico via dredging and excavation of almost 600,000 cubic yards using an intricate combination of mechanical excavators and hydraulic dredges. Construction was completed ahead of schedule and without impacting sensitive habitat.
Now, one year after construction completion, Cedar Bayou and Vinson Slough have been closely monitored to quantify the impacts and effectiveness of the project. Currently, biological monitoring results indicate that re-opening Cedar Bayou has increased ecological productivity in the area with strong evidence of an increase in juvenile redfish, spotted sea trout, flounder, and blue crab, a known food source for wintering whooping cranes. Habitat monitoring reports also indicate that the project has led to an increase in tidal sand flats, estuarine wetlands, and seagrass beds in the area.
Cedar Bayou exhibits a complex morphology that continues to evolve in response to meteorological influences and coastal processes as documented in periodic aerial photographs paired with hydrographic and topographic survey data collection. Mott MacDonald is currently working with Aransas County to develop a long-term plan to optimize maintenance dredging based on observations from monitoring of the morphological response. Existing data has already been used to develop preliminary sedimentation analysis and numerical modeling. In addition, Aransas County is pursuing an amendment to the current USACE permit to allow for periodic maintenance dredging.
As more monitoring data is gathered, the maintenance plan will be adjusted to develop a cost-effective solution for dredging to ensure the longevity and sustainability of Cedar Bayou. The success of the Cedar Bayou inlet system enhances both coastal and economic resilience for Aransas County.
Mrs. McElhinney is a Coastal Engineering EIT with a B.S. in ocean engineering and an M.S. in coastal engineering. Her interests include numerical modeling of coastal hydrodynamics and analyzing their interactions with the shoreline and coastal structures.
Woods Hole Group/Coastal Geologist
Popponesset Spit is a 4,000’ long barrier beach, in Mashpee, MA. The Spit terminates at a small tidal inlet that allows passage from Vineyard Sound into Popponesset Bay through the Sound navigation channel. The Spit provides habitat for endangered shorebirds, storm protection for the residences along Popponesset Bay, and is a valuable recreational asset accessible to all local residents. The Sound navigation channel provides access to and from Popponesset Bay for thousands of boaters annually.
The Spit has an average erosion rate of -5.0 ft/yr that can be attributed to normal coastal processes, the effects of sea level rise and a reduction of sediment transport due to updrift armoring. The Spit currently over-tops during moderate storms, which damages the beach/dune system, washes sand into the channels restricting safe navigation, and exposes landward properties to storm damage. It is notable that FEMA considers the Spit to be completely ephemeral in terms of shore protection benefits during a severe storm (1% chance of occurrence in any given year), and has mapped properties within the Bay in a Velocity Zone anticipating wave damage up to 17 ft above the normal water level.
Although the Town and Save Popponesset Bay (SPB) proactively dredge channels and used the sand to bolster the Spit, the current quantities are inadequate and there is a need for more extensive shore protection measures to maintain the barrier and Bay system. In 2014, a substantial dune restoration project commenced and over the past two years over 20,000 cubic yards of sand have been placed on the dunes to restore dune height and elevation along most of the 4,000 foot barrier. Despite this effort, the Spit is still vulnerable and a large-scale nourishment project is necessary for long term survival.
To help local communities address issues such as the one Popponesset faces, MA Coastal Zone Management has provided financial assistance and technical resources through the Green Infrastructure for Coastal Resilience Grant Program. SPB received a grant to evaluate and design a green infrastructure solution to help stabilize the barrier beach, restore endangered species habitat and enhance the existing navigation channels. Woods Hole Group (WHG) was contracted by SPB to implement the project that was funded through the Grant.
WHG collected a suite of new field data, performed a comprehensive coastal processes analysis, and evaluated a host of green infrastructure design alternatives for barrier beach restoration and navigation channel enhancements. An engineering design for the preferred beach nourishment and dune restoration was drafted using sand from a combination of sand sources and the proposed project is currently being reviewed by the regulatory agencies in MA. The preferred alternatives was chosen to optimize benefits to the Popponesset Spit, Bay system, navigation channels, and landward properties and stakeholders. Benefits include a more resilient barrier that can buffer storm activity, reduce storm damage to the Spit itself and landward properties and businesses, and protect the system of safe and reliable navigation channels. SPB intends to implement this nature based solution to improve the coastal resilience of the publicly accessible Popponesset Spit, which will provide immeasurable environmental, recreational, and economic benefits to the local community.
Ms. Marden has more than 20 years of experience in the areas of coastal geology and coastal process evaluation. During the past five years, her focus at Woods Hole Group has been managing and implementing regional dredging and beach nourishment programs for local municipalities and private homeowners, often forging effective public-private partnerships. Ms. Marden is also involved in long-term monitoring for many of these projects. Ms. Marden also specializes projects related to tidal inlet and sediment transport processes, sand resource investigations for beach nourishment as well as design, permitting and construction oversight for many coastal structure and bio-engineered projects.
In the wake of recent significant coastal storm events like Sandy in 2012, the Town of Branford, CT funded through the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Community Development Block Grant Disaster (CDBG-DR) to develop three Community Coastal Resilience Plans for the coastal communities of Branford, Madison, and Milford. The goal of the project was to facilitate social, economic and ecological resilience of the three Towns to impacts of sea level rise and to anticipated increases in the frequency and severity of storm surge, coastal flooding and erosion.
Dewberry performed vulnerability and risk assessments on the impacts on particular sections of shoreline that were of interest to the community members and residents. The team utilized sea level rise and future scenario decision support tools hosted by NOAA and The Nature Conservancy via The Coastal Resilience Tool (http://coastalresilience.org/). Further site-specific or neighborhood-specific analysis was performed to refine the vulnerability assessment.
These coastal neighborhoods are diverse and each will be faced with a combination of vulnerabilities with sea level rise and the increased incidence and severity of coastal storms. In order to summarize the primary coastal hazards along various sections of coastlines of Branford, Milford, and Madison, it was necessary to review the preliminary New Haven County, CT Flood Insurance Study (FIS) (issued August 10, 2015). Coastal hazards data can include: storm surge inundation, wave setup and wave runup, wave action, erosion of coastal banks and beaches, drainage-related flooding, and wind.
This presentation will summarize the coastal adaptation strategies that were presented to the community for two specific sites located in Milford, CT. The first for an area along the Milford shoreline at Wildemere Beach (site plan). This section of shoreline consists of a narrow stretch of beach that is inundated to the existing first row of homes under normal high tide conditions. The second area is along Walnut Beach (neighborhood plan) in Milford. The neighborhood inland of Walnut Beach is inundated by the 1%-annual-chance storm event and impacts approximately 127 homes/structures. The preferred alternative includes a combination of dune nourishment and elevated roads in which the number of homes impacted by the 1%-annual-chance event is reduced to approximately 53.
Ms. Sarah Hamm holds a Master of Science Degree in Geology from the Colorado School of Mines and has over 13 years of experience as a Coastal Geologist. For the past 5+ years Ms. Hamm has been a Project Coastal Scientist within Dewberry’s Integrated Resilience Services Group. She is an expert in flood hazard analysis and mapping, evaluating storm induced erosion, and coastal resilience studies in the Northeast. Prior to arrival at Dewberry Ms. Hamm has 8 years of experience working as a coastal geologist along with coastal engineers to design, permit, and monitor beach, dune, and bluff restoration projects along various stretches of shoreline throughout Cape Cod and southeastern, Massachusetts.
Authors: Sarah Hamm, CFM and Scott Choquette, CFM
Dial Cordy and Associates/Coastal Scientist
Dial Cordy and Associates Inc. was contracted by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) in October 2015 to develop a comprehensive analysis and spatial map that identifies areas critical to fish, wildlife, and ecosystem health first and foremost of the Cape Fear River Basin, but also of the broader Southeast Atlantic coast. In addition to a GIS assessment, a list of prospective resiliency projects were developed with stakeholders within the Cape Fear River basin. For more than 15 years, NFWF has managed conservation programs focused on marine and coastal ecosystems and, more recently, on coastal resiliency. The NFWF is expanding that work beyond the northeast region. The Cape Fear River is the largest watershed wholly contained within North Carolina, with more than one-third of the state’s population living within it. The watershed also supports some of the highest biodiversity rates along the eastern seaboard. The Assessment had a primary focus on the Cape Fear River basin in North Carolina, but also evaluated the entire Southeast Atlantic Coast (North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida). To address the NFWF’s need for a spatially explicit prioritization of fish, wildlife, and habitat in the Cape Fear River basin and the broader Southeast Atlantic coast, our team evaluated potential GIS layers that represented meaningful information, while meeting our criteria for spatial resolution and accuracy. Specifically, we focused our effort on Federal Threatened and Endangered (Fed T & E) species, G1, G2, and G3 elements and their supporting natural areas, highly localized species with important ecosystem properties and candidate and petition species. Priority 1 status was assigned to 699,563.60 acres including 3,910.67 acres of natural shellfish beds, 245.32 acres of submerged aquatic vegetation, 70,044.25 acres of primary fish nursery area, 24,698.58 acres of vulnerable bird nesting areas, 0.5 acre of oyster sanctuary, and 378,874.25 acres of natural areas with a significance rating of Exceptional, Very High, or High. Land Cover data from the United States Geological Survey’s National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) was used to evaluate areas that were given Priority status. Overall, priority areas were comprised largely of wetlands, forests, and open water with only a small amount of acreage in developed areas. The South Atlantic Coast analysis evaluated 1,471 sub-basins in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. HUCs were placed into three priority classes, and North Carolina had the most priority HUCs in the assessment with 141 designated as Priority 1, 68 as Priority 2 and 249 as Priority 3. The GIS model identified more acreage of priority areas in the middle and lower portions of the Cape Fear River Basin. The lower portion of the basin in particular is a highly productive area dominated by marine and estuarine wetlands and open water, and home to numerous rare and imperiled fish and wildlife species. The products developed by this GIS analysis will be used by the NFWF and federal partners including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to prioritize areas for possible resiliency projects that protect communities from severe storms and floods, and enhance fish and wildlife populations and their associated habitats.
Mrs. York, a coastal scientist and project manager for Dial Cordy and Associates Inc., has been involved in the design, preparation, coordination, and adaptive management of large-scale, multi-disciplinary coastal monitoring, environmental assessment, and comprehensive natural resource management programs for 13 years. Her experience is associated with environmental permitting requirements for large-scale beach nourishment programs including the management and direction of environmental documentation and permit authorizations in accordance with the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Mrs. York received her Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees from the University of NC at Wilmington where she conducted three years of extensive sea level rise research on the Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers under the direction of Dr. Courtney Hackney for the US Army Corps of Engineers Wilmington Harbor Deepening Project.
Co-author: Keith Walls, GIS Analyst, Dial Cordy and Associates
CH2M/Regional Technology Leader for Coastal Planning and Engineering
The Borough of Monmouth Beach, NJ, has a population of over 3,200 residents and occupies approximately 2 square miles. The Borough lies between the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Shrewsbury River to the west. Given its proximity to these water bodies, the Borough was severely impacted by Superstorm Sandy which inundated Borough streets with several feet of water damaging homes and the Borough’s infrastructure including the local elementary school, sewer and stormwater systems, township buildings, a wastewater treatment plant, and numerous waterfront structures.
In January 2014, the Borough of Monmouth Beach submitted a detailed application for a National Fish and Wildlife (NFWF) Coastal Resiliency Grant to restore the Borough’s dune and the tidal marshes which were both heavily impacted by Sandy. The dune system along the ocean is now restored and absorbing and dissipating the ocean’s wave energy during storms. It was designed and constructed to provide nesting habitat for endangered bird species including piping plovers, least terns, and black skimmers. The marsh islands located in the Shrewsbury River within Borough’s boundary are being restored using living shoreline applications to provide increased habitat for wading and roosting birds while reducing the wave run-up on the bayside residential properties and important infrastructure. This includes the Two Rivers Water Reclamation Authority’s (TRA) 16 million gallon-per-day (MGD) wastewater treatment plant that serves 13 towns surrounding Monmouth Beach.
In June 2014, Monmouth Beach was informed that out of 375 applications, it was one of 54 recipients who received a NFWF resiliency grant; the amount of which was $1.78M. One of the key features of the Borough’s dune restoration project attractive to NFWF was the beneficial reuse of 50,000 CY of sand that was dredged from the Shrewsbury River as part of the Corps of Engineers Federal Navigation project.
To address potential concerns regarding the dune impacting nearby piping plover nesting areas, project stakeholders including the USFWS, NJDEP, and Conserve Wildlife Foundation of NJ quickly sprang into action to help project engineers design a new dune system that was the least impactful to the Piping Plover and may act as an enhancement to future nesting activities. As a result of months of work being condensed into mere weeks, reviewing federal and state agencies aided the town in getting all of the necessary approvals for the dune restoration project which was constructed in concert with the Corps dredging and shore replenishment activities.
The benefits of the dune and marsh restoration projects are significant. Now completed the work resulted in the restoration of approximately 0.5-mile of beach dune and berm, providing enhanced resilience to storms and increased habitat for endangered species. Marsh island restoration design work is ongoing for the creation of a living shoreline for over 17-acres of tidal wetlands impacted by the Storm. Design of the living shoreline is slated to be completed in the summer of 2016 with the potential for pilot studies to investigate the beneficial reuse of dredged material from the Shrewsbury River to restore the island’s previous topographic features.
Mark Jaworski is the Regional Technology Leader for Coastal Planning and Engineering at CH2M’s New York City office. He has more than 24 years of experience in the development and implementation of ecological restoration projects within coastal, estuarine, and riverine environments. Mark specializes in working with clients and stakeholders to identify initiatives and funding streams aimed at improving the ecology, enhancing resiliency, and providing economic returns on natural infrastructure investments. His background includes design and construction of projects involving shoreline protection, ecological restoration, fish passage, endangered species and wetlands mitigation banking. He has experience in designing and managing projects involving Living Shorelines throughout the northeastern U.S. He has prepared numerous types of local, state, and federal permits including all levels of NEPA analysis. Other responsibilities include business development; budget, schedule and scope preparation; client and teaming partner relationship building; and contracting.
CDM Smith/Coastal and Water Resources Engineer
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) currently administers three programs that provide funding for eligible mitigation projects that reduces disaster losses and protect life and property from future disaster damages. The three programs are the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP), the Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Program, and the Pre-Disaster Mitigation (PDM) Program. Although the programs differ in implementation, the goals are primarily the same: to reduce overall risk to the population and structures from future hazard events, while reducing reliance on Federal funding in future disasters and raising public awareness about reducing future losses before a disaster.
As part of the efforts to support the FEMA Hazard Mitigation Program, CDM Smith is involved in developing job aids and resources available for applicants that guide them through elements of the process, including How to Determine Your Flood Risk and information regarding Resilience and Climate Change Adaptation that discuss FEMA programs designed to promote community resilience. Other considerations for communities include FEMA’s focused stance on prioritizing pre-disaster mitigation in the form of competitive projects involving climate resilient mitigation activities (CRMA). FEMA guidance also encourages communities to incorporate climate change considerations in their project scoping and development, such as including benefits of sea level rise mitigation, and environmental benefits associated with the acquisition of properties in green open space and riparian areas. This presentation will provide an overview of the different grant programs, resources and guidance relating to the programs, and a project case study.
Ms. Bui is a water resources and coastal engineer at CDM Smith, specializing in coastal flood hazard analysis, coastal modeling, climate change adaptation, and hazard mitigation. She received her B.S. and M.S. in Civil Engineering from Drexel University. She spent a few months in New Jersey after Hurricane Sandy in support of the FEMA Public Assistance efforts on the 406 Hazard Mitigation Task Force and Beach Task Force.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University
Siyuan Xian: PhD candidate, Princeton University
Ning Lin: Assistant professor, Princeton University
Coastal flood risk increases with time owing to rapid coastal development, population migration, sea level rise and the effect of climate change on storminess. In response to the increasing risk in the future, many coastal megacities have constructed protection systems with very high-standards such as the Thames Barrier for London in UK, the ‘dike rings’ for Amsterdam and Rotterdam in Netherlands and large-scale sea wall for Shanghai in China. However, there are still many important coastal megacities including NYC that has low level of flood protection. Superstorm Sandy in 2012 raises up a wide discussion about the urgency and necessity of improving flood resilience for NYC especially for areas with concentrated assets and population such as the Lower Manhattan. One of the winning proposals for the federal ‘Rebuild by Design’ competition focuses on the flood protection strategies for Lower Manhattan, called the ‘Big U’. The aim of the ‘Big U’ project is to protect low-lying areas stretching from West 57th street south and up to East 42th street in Manhattan. However, this proposed protection system (e.g. the berms) is based on design storms with future 100-year flood return levels rather than using the full distribution of future flood hazards. Meanwhile this design (based on the return-level) cannot consider the temporal variations of the vulnerability of the urban environment, coastal exposure development and shift in building characteristics due to building code. In this study, we first provide a methodology framework to integrate the estimation of flood hazards from probabilistic risk assessment of hurricanes and storm surge using state-of-the-art scientific models (Lin et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2015), the vulnerability of the urban assets at the building-level as well as the uncertainty of future sea level rise scenarios (e.g. Kopp et al., 2014), to pursue both static and dynamic optimal flood adaptation strategies for local-scale coastal protection (e.g. height of sea wall, levee, flood wall, dike, barrier). Static optimal design refers to one-time (i.e. static) optimal adaptation level that minimizes the combined cost of flood adaptation and future expected losses (in present value). Dynamic adaptation strategy allows the consideration of temporal increments of the protection levels at the initial design stage, using algorithm of dynamic programming. We apply our proposed framework to lower Manhattan, NYC. The results reveal some important findings: 1. Design based on return-level (e.g. 100-year flood) is neither economically beneficial nor sufficient to mitigate extreme losses; 2. One-time optimal adaptation ($ 223 million) is much more cost-effective than return-level design based on current condition ($ 1.5 billion) or future condition ($ 1.08 billion); 3. Dynamic adaptation design is the most cost-effective strategy ($ 174 million). Return-level design and one-time optimal design (95% confidence interval; 2.4 feet) are more sensitive to the uncertainty of sea level (95% confidence interval; 2.6 feet) than dynamic optimal design (95% confidence interval; 0.1-0.9 feet at different time step). The future work needs to evaluate the uncertainty of the optimal and dynamic design to the cost of construction, discount rate and the effects of climate change on tropical cyclones. The current finding point out that the return-level based design, adopted by many coastal megacities, may need to be further evaluated. Dynamic adaptation or other updating system (such as Bayesian update) for design may be a better option especially when we are unsure about future variations in climate, sea level and urban environment.
AECOM and Riverside Technologies, Inc. worked with NOAA’s Coast Survey Development Laboratory to develop and test a hurricane storm surge operational forecast system build on the ADCIRC storm surge model. The goal of the project was to improve current operational products by including both tropical and extra-tropical storms, incorporating a five-member ensemble forecast, and extending the mesh overland.
The model domain includes the Easter and Gulf U.S. coasts (including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and covers the shoreline up to about the 10 meter (33 foot) contour. The model mesh contains 1.8 million nodes and is run on NOAA’s super computing resources. This talk will further describe the model development and testing including hindcast validation and forecast modeling. This model is currently on-track for operational implementation for the 2016 hurricane season and a recap of the 2016 hurricane season will be presented at this conference.
Emily Dhingra is a coastal engineer and project manager in AECOM’s Germantown, MD office. She has worked on storm surge, tidal datum, wave height, runup, and sea level rise modeling for projects on the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes coasts.
Earth Adv, CEO
In the dynamic environment of the nearshore, accurate monitoring and mapping in time and space has advanced dramatically as new technology is developed and big data from many sources becomes available. How can this data be presented in a visual user-friendly format that can be easily comprehended and put to use in coastal planning? The presentation will review shoreline positioning data sources and advanced monitoring technologies, while proposing new ways to share data among organizations, including implementing crowd-sourced data collection programs. The effects of new construction, shoreline fortification and beach nourishment against rising tides, storm surge and climate changes require accurate benchmarking and measurements in order to assess coastal projects as never before. As more groups become focused on the coast, it’s never been important to visualize complex data. To protect coastlines, accurate data is critical, as well as historical perspectives from the local community. Coastal Story Mapping Team: Martha Shaw, MSc Coastal Geologist and Visualization Specialist; Wetherbee Dorshow, PhD, President of Earth Analytic, Inc. and Executive Director of GIS Institute; Drew Stevens, Ocean Industry Manager, ESRI; and Chris Mathias, Founder of Puente (Baja).
This team of experts has worked on the Google Ocean Project, an ocean layer to augment Google Earth, ESRI, GIS Institute, Lidar, citizen science, and NOAA satellite reconnaissance programs, and is building a platform for aggregating coastal data for multiple uses. Martha Shaw, the convener, is a Coastal Geologist from the Center for Coastal Studies (SIO) who has focused her career on making the most of coastal data, particularly coastal geomorphology, wetlands, harbors, sediment transport and beach profiling. As shore and beach scientists face increasing challenges to communicate nearshore dynamics with non-scientists, Ms. Shaw is working with a team of the nation’s experts to build a platform where data can be shared, corwd-sourced and visualized.
Martha Shaw is a Coastal Geologist from the Center for Coastal Studies (SIO) who has focused her career on making the most of coastal data, particularly coastal geomorphology, wetlands, harbors, sediment transport and beach profiling. As shore and beach scientists face increasing challenges to communicate nearshore dynamics with non-scientists, Ms. Shaw is working with a team of the nation’s experts to build a platform where data can be shared, crowd-sourced and visualized.
TI Coastal Services, Inc./Coastal Geolgist
The Town of Topsail Beach, located in southeastern North Carolina, began privately managing its beach nourishment and coastal protection projects in 2009. Since that time, the Town has successfully completed three separate beachfill projects placing over 2 million cubic yards of sand along its oceanfront shoreline. These projects have all utilized neighboring channel systems and inlet shoaling as borrow areas, creating a 2 fold benefit for the overall project—reinforcing the coastal protection from the oceanfront beach and dunes as well as maintaining safe navigation for mariners around the island.
This project has been an example of how an individual community can work with non-federal agencies to create new funding mechanisms, provide multi-level benefits to the community, create political unity within the community and do so while being s steward of the environment. The Topsail Island Shoreline Protection Committee worked with local Senators and Representatives to pass the Shallow Draft Inlet Bills, providing a funding mechanism for the dredging of shallow draft inlets with beneficial use of dredged sand on adjacent beaches. The recent 2015 Topsail Inlet Dredging and Beach Nourishment project was the first project to use this fund and is the benchmark for future projects under this arrangement.
Additionally, because the design of this project incorporates both navigation and beach construction aspects, it beneficially impacts both ocean-front and sound-front homeowners, as well as mainland residents who utilize the local waterways. Because of this dual purpose, the Town of Topsail Beach was able to approve ad valorem taxes dedicated specifically to the Beach, Inlet and Sound Fund and receive annual contributions from Pender County as well. Funds generated by the Shallow Draft Inlet Bills coupled with the local ad valorem taxes have created a sustainable funding mechanism, ensuring the longevity and success of this project.
The design of the borrow sites, within naturally shoaling channel systems, also provides a renewable resource for clean beach quality sand. Before the Town implemented their current Beach and Inlet Management Plan, Topsail Inlet historically needed navigation maintenance 4 times per year from the USACE side-cast dredge, typically during times of high biological activity in the Inlet. It has currently been 15 months since dredging operations were completed in Topsail Inlet and no maintenance is anticipated for the upcoming summer months. This project has resulted in the longest recover period for larval entrainment, at least 2 years, for species spawning within the Topsail Sound, since the USACE authorized the Topsail Inlet Navigation Project in the 1960’s.
This project is proof that a small community of fewer than 300 residents can think outside of the box to complete multiple goals and develop a long-term management strategy that works within the financial constraints of the Town. It has been the inspiration for a new financial partnership between North Carolina and its coastal communities aimed at protecting the coastal system as a whole and its performance over the past year proves this approach provides substantial protection in the form of a beautiful and natural beach.
Jamie Pratt completed has worked in the Coastal Engineering and Geology world since finishing with graduate school at the University of Delaware in 2006. He now works with TI Coastal Services, based in Wilmington, North Carolina, on a variety of coastal oriented projects ranging from small-scale marina redesign/dredging to beach quality sand searches as well as construction management for large-scale beachfill projects.
USACE, Galveston District
Approximately $25M is being invested in coastal storm risk management feasibility studies along the Texas coast. The Sabine Pass to Galveston Bay Study (S2G) will result in a comprehensive review of the problems and opportunities related to storm surge impacts for the six-county region along the upper Texas Coast. The study is in its 4th year and is expected to have a Chief’s Report in the summer of 2017. Two existing hurricane flood protection levee systems will be improved and approximately 27 miles of new levee will be proposed for construction. S2G was one of the first studies to go through the Corp’s SMART Planning process. It also received an exemption under the Corp’s 3x3x3 rule (later codified under WRRDA). Additional time and costs were approved to complete the study.
The Coastal Texas Project is similar to the Sabine Pass to Galveston Bay Project, but will assess coastal storm risk management alternatives along the entire Texas coast. A Reconnaissance Study was completed in May of 2015, followed by the initiation of the feasibility study in November 2015. An exemption from the 3x3x3 rule was sought and granted for this study also. An update on both studies will be presented as well as information on the Corp’s exemption process and challenges with SMART Planning.
Ms. Tirpak, originally from Pittsburgh, PA, attended college along the southern coast of Maine and graduated in 1980 with a BS in Marine Biology. After graduation she began her government career as a Fishery Biologist for the Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service. Over the next 14 years she worked in Pascagoula, MS, Beaufort NC and Galveston, TX conducting fisheries research on fish, dolphin and sea turtles. In 1994 Ms. Tirpak transferred from the Dept. of Commerce to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Galveston District. She worked in the District’s Regulatory Branch evaluating Department of Army Permits for work in navigable waters and waters of the U.S., including wetlands; in the Civil Works Planning Section developing feasibility studies; and since 2008 has been with the Project Management Branch leading multi-disciplinary teams through the planning, design and construction of federally funded civil works projects concerning flood risk management, coastal storm risk management, navigation and ecosystem restoration. In 2015 she was promoted to the position of Deputy Chief of Project Management Branch.
Mott MacDonald/Coastal Engineer
Gandy’s Beach is a small community located on the Delaware Bay in Downe Township, New Jersey. The town consists of more than 60 houses and one marina, all located along Cove Road, which extends approximately three-quarters of a mile along the bayfront. Historical aerial photograph indicate that a wide beach was present along this section of shoreline around the 1930s. However, throughout the past decades, this shoreline has been receding at an average rate of about 2.5 ft/yr. The extent of the dry beach is also limited by the area’s large tidal range, which exceeds 4.8 feet. A line of bulkheading and a concrete-covered stone seawall does offer some level of protection to the houses and Cove Road; however, these structures have experienced damage from storm surge, wave impact, and undermining.
In its current state, Gandy’s Beach has little to no beach fronting Cove Road, leaving the seawall, bulkhead, and houses vulnerable in coastal storms. It’s expected that the conditions will only worsen with time, due to the lack of sand in the littoral system. The lack of a wide beach not only poses significant threats from a coastal engineering perspective, but it also has a negative impact on the local habitat. Atlantic horseshoe crabs, a near-threatened species that lives in the Delaware Bay, rely on the presence of wide beaches for spawning grounds. The red knot, a shorebird that has recently been placed on the threatened species list, relies on the availability of horseshoe crab eggs as a source of food. Thus, the lack of a beach along Cove Road reduces the spawning grounds for horseshoe crabs, and therefore, reduces the food supply for the red knots.
As the consultant for a shore protection project at the northwestern end of Gandy’s Beach, Hatch Mott MacDonald (HMM) provided the client (Downe Township, NFWF, and NJDEP) with a solution designed to provide stability to the shoreline, while also providing environmental benefits for the local marine and shorebird habitat. HMM performed a coastal engineering analysis of the site to first evaluate the existing conditions and develop and understanding of the coastal processes. A set of project alternatives was then developed, upon which an analysis was performed to determine which alternative best met the project goals of providing beach stabilization and ecological benefits. The identified preferred alternative consists of a headland breakwater system design that optimizes coastal protection, improves the habitat of horseshoe crabs and red knots, and minimizes downdrift impacts. The selection of the preferred alternative and the design features of the headland breakwater system are discussed in this presentation. Key points of the design process will be addressed, including: results of the coastal processes analysis, the alternatives analysis, and the expected performance of the headland breakwater structures at Gandy’s Beach.
Katie Walling is a native resident of the New Jersey shore region, who has been working as a coastal engineer with Hatch Mott MacDonald in Freehold, NJ for about a year. She graduated from Stevens Institute of Technology with her Civil Engineering Bachelor’s degree in 2014 and with her Ocean Engineering Master’s degree in 2015.
Moffatt & Nichol / Coastal Engineer
Broad Beach has been suffering from shoreline erosion over the past 40+ years, resulting in an almost complete loss of quality public access and threat to private property. These challenges are symptomatic of many of southern California’s beaches. The Broad Beach Geologic Hazard Abatement District elected to take action to restore this historically broad beach with private funding. It has been seven years since the planning of the Broad Beach Restoration Project began, and four years since the author presented this project at the ASBPA 2012 Conference in San Diego. Due to a broad range of challenges, some which could have been anticipated and some not, the project still has not placed a grain of sand on the beach. The focus of the presentation will be to provide a brief overview of the project goals, and then provide insight into some of the more unique aspects of developing a shoreline restoration project that balances erosion control, property protection, improved recreation and lateral access opportunities, aesthetics, and environmental stewardship.
Russ Boudreau has over 30 years of experience in coastal and ocean engineering. He is a Vice President and Senior Coastal Engineer with Moffatt & Nichol in Long Beach, California. His responsibilities have included planning, engineering and construction management for a broad range of beach nourishment, regional sediment management, ecosystem restoration, water quality and navigation improvement projects in the U.S. and throughout the Pacific Rim. Mr. Boudreau is a registered civil engineer in the States of California and Hawaii, and has a Master of Engineering degree from the University of California at Berkeley.
Dr. Michael Schwebel is the Community Resilience and Climate Adaptation Specialist at the Urban Coast Institute, as a joint endeavor between Monmouth University and the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium (NJSGC). Mike’s research and practice areas focus on climate change policy, community outreach and adaptation, and resilience at the local, regional, and state level. He also teaches classes at Monmouth University in geography, climate change, and policy and is an extension agent of NJSGC.
Mike holds a Ph.D. in Geography and Urban studies from Temple University, a Master of Science from The Johns Hopkins University, and a Bachelors of Landscape Architecture from The Pennsylvania State University. He is a registered landscape architect (RLA) and LEED-accredited professional.
Nicholas Angarone, PP/AICP is a senior planner in the Office of Coastal and Land Use Planning at the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Nick serves as the lead project manager for planning projects of the New Jersey Coastal Management Program (NJCMP) that provide improved and coordinated resiliency planning tools and direct technical assistance to 239 communities in the state. Nick holds a Master of City and Regional Planning from the Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy and a Bachelor of Science in Environmental Planning and Design from Rutgers University.
Jenna Gatto is a Resilient Community Specialist at Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve. In this position she works one-on-one with New Jersey municipalities to identify current and future coastal hazards and vulnerabilities using FEMA flood maps, NJFloodMapper, NJAdapt.org, and the Getting to Resilience (GTR) community evaluation process. The GTR questionnaire was designed to reduce municipal vulnerability and increase preparedness by linking planning, mitigation, and adaptation. The GTR process includes Risk and Vulnerability Assessments, Public Engagement, Planning Integration, Disaster Preparedness and Recovery, and Hazard Mitigation Implementation. Jenna works directly with municipal decision makers to facilitate the GTR assessment process, then provides municipal-specific recommendations aimed at enhancing implementation of adaptive actions to increase resilience.
Stacy Krause, PP/AICP: Stacy Krause is a licensed, professional planner with a primary focus in environmental and climate resilience planning. She began her career at the NJ Office of Smart Growth administering the NJ Plan Endorsement process and assisting with the update to the State Development and Redevelopment Plan. As a Senior Planner with the Ocean County Department of Planning she worked on county master plan development, Joint Land Use planning with the US Department of Defense, Water Quality Management, and sewer service area planning. Currently at Rutgers University, Ms. Krause develops vulnerability assessments and identifies actions that communities can take for better climate and hazards preparedness.